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CRDEUL <i>Center Points</i>.

Resource Corner

David Arendale
CRDEUL Outreach Faculty Advisor

Each issue of the newsletter will highlight resource information that you can use immediately to support your work with students. Two annotated bibliographies follow.

1) Culture and demographic changes impacting developmental education: Annotated bibliography
Arendale, D. (compiler)

The dramatic and swift demographic changes that are occurring within American society will have a profound impact upon postsecondary education in general and with developmental education in particular. These changes will require use of new theories of learning for the increasing diversity of the student body. For the most part, higher education has lagged far behind elementary and secondary education in the study and effective implementation of more effective and sensitive pedagogies of learning. This is especially true of multicultural education which has for a long time focused on celebrating differences rather than building upon that facet and actually transforming the learning environment. Included among these citations is an inventory that can be used at an institution to measure the degree to which multicultural education is incorporated into the campus culture, policies, and practices.

The following annotated bibliography provides an overview of selected recent publications related to issues that will impact postsecondary developmental education in the near future. Many of the documents are available through the Web as noted in the references. New citations will be added periodically to a searchable on-line database.

Barajas, H. L. (2001). Is developmental education a racial project? Considering race relationships in developmental education spaces. In D. B. Lundell, & J. L. Higbee (Eds.), Theoretical perspectives for developmental education (pp. 65-74). Minneapolis, MN: Center for Research in Developmental Education and Urban Literacy, General College, University of Minnesota. Retrieved July 4, 2004, from:

The author states in the preface to the article that as a sociologist teaching in a developmental education unit, it was clear that the disciplines of sociology and education revolved around White theories, create spaces that are inherently White, and create a culture of Whiteness that is more apt to study persons of color than to utilize their skills, talents, and ideas. The theoretical arguments and empirical evidence in this article explore the possibility that schools are what critical theory terms a racial project in which everyday school experiences and the school process are racially organized. Often, participants in racial projects silence students of color and create barriers to resources much like gendered spaces silence and create barriers for women.

Boylan, H. R., Sutton, E. M., & Anderson, J. A. (2003). Diversity as a resource in developmental education. Journal of Developmental Education, 27(1), 12-14, 16-17.

This article explores the impact of cultural diversity in developmental education programs and how it is a resource for higher achievement for all students in the class. Research suggests higher intellectual development and persistence rates for students in such a classroom setting.

Bruch, P. L., & Higbee, J. L. (2002). Reflections on multiculturalism in developmental education. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 33(1), 77-90.

This article reports on an effort to better understand the impact of increasing demographic diversity and calls for accountability. The authors describe the conditions needed for constructive local discussions and reforms relating to multiculturalism. The authors report how a group of developmental education professionals in a large, interdisciplinary developmental education unit understand multiculturalism. They explore the potentials and challenges involved in initiating local conversations about multiculturalism.

Bruch, P. (2002). Toward a new conversation: Multiculturalism for developmental educators. In J. L. Higbee, D. B. Lundell, & I. M. Duranczyk (Eds.), Developmental education: Policy and practice (pp. 35-44). Auburn, GA: National Association for Developmental Education.

The author provides a review of the place of multiculturalism within developmental education and the impact, or lack thereof, that it has had. After exploring the various positions taken on multiculturalism, the author proposes a new conversation based on asymmetrical reciprocity. Following this discussion, the author makes several recommendations for transforming writing instruction to foster this model.

Higbee, J. L. (2001). Promoting multiculturalism in developmental education. Research and Teaching in Developmental Education, 18(1), 51-57.

The author describes the importance of multiculturalism being deeply embedded within the curriculum and culture of the institution in general and developmental education in particular. This is especially true since often such programs have the most culturally diverse student populations. Examples are provided for ways for the institution and the classroom instructor to incorporate multiculturalism.

Higbee, J. L., Bruch, P. L., Jehangir, R. R., Lundell, D. B., & Miksch, K. L. (2003). The multicultural mission of developmental education: A starting point. Research and Teaching in Developmental Education, 19(2), 47-51.

The authors describe the work of the Multicultural Awareness Project for Institutional Transformation (MAP-IT) and the development of ten guiding principles for institutions regarding changes in institutional governance, organization, and equity; faculty and staff development; student development; intergroup relations; and assessment. This work is based on Diversity within unity: Essential principles for teaching and learning in a multicultural society (Banks et al., 2001).

Higbee, J. L., Lundell, D. B., & Duranczyk, I. M. (Eds.) (2003). Multiculturalism in developmental education. Minneapolis, MN: Center for Research on Developmental Education, General College, University of Minnesota. Retrieved July 4, 2004, from:
           
The first three chapters of this monograph provide models for integrating multiculturalism in developmental education. The remaining chapters focus on conversations related to multiculturalism in developmental education, reported by our colleagues in the General College of the University of Minnesota. The work of these authors reflects the General College's efforts to implement its multicultural mission.

Jehangir, R. R. (2001). Cooperative learning in the multicultural classroom. In D. B. Lundell, & J. L. Higbee (Eds.), Theoretical perspectives for developmental education (pp. 91-99). Minneapolis, MN: Center for Research in Developmental Education and Urban Literacy, General College, University of Minnesota. Retrieved July 4, 2004, from:

The author describes the role of cooperative learning in creating an inclusive, interactive classroom for fostering both developmental education and multicultural education. Key elements of cooperative learning include: value of learning, shared governance, group accountability, and student-generated construction of knowledge. All these elements permit a more open and even discussion of issues from a variety of perspectives and cultures rather than the learning setting being dominated by the course professor who may represent only one cultural perspective and often that of the dominant culture in society.

Miksch, K. L., Higbee, J. L., Jehanglr, R. R., Lundell, D. B., Bruch, P. L., Siaka, K., & Dotson, M. V. (2003). Multicultural Awareness Project for Institutional Transformation (MAP IT). Minneapolis, MN: Multicultural Concerns Committee and the Center for Research on Developmental Education and Urban Literacy, General College, University of Minnesota.

The Multicultural Awareness Project for Institutional Transformation (MAP IT) was developed at the University of Minnesota’s General College with the goal of integrating multicultural education within postsecondary education. MAP IT is an adaptation of Diversity Within Unity: Essential Principles for Teaching and Learning in a Multicultural Society (Banks et al., 2001). This publication contains the MAP IT set of 10 Guiding Principles and four survey instruments designed to aid in measuring the extent to which institutions of higher education centralize multicultural education and incorporate the guiding principles. Instruments are provided for survey of the following four groups within the institution: administrator, faculty & instructional staff, student development and support services staff, and student.

Pedelty, M. H., & Jacobs, W. R. (2001). The place of “culture” in developmental education's social sciences. In D. B. Lundell, & J. L. Higbee (Eds.), Theoretical perspectives for developmental education (pp. 75-90). Minneapolis, MN: Center for Research in Developmental Education and Urban Literacy, General College, University of Minnesota. Retrieved July 4, 2004, from:

The authors state in the preface to the article that a new trend within developmental education is to view students in their full complexities, rather than as “deficits” to be fixed. This position can be actualized in the social sciences by retheorizing “culture.” The authors use a cultural studies framework to combine anthropological and sociological groundings into a model of culture that demands that first the students’ pre-college lived experiences and understandings be accessed, and then work with them to expand, rather than replace, their knowledge with the formal discourses that they must master to negotiate academic spaces.

Swail, W. S. (2002). Higher education and the new demographics: Questions for policy. Change Magazine, 34(4), 15-23.

The author notes the changing demographics of higher education which lead to increasing diversity upon entry into the institution, but at the same time reveal that low-income, first generation, and students of color are less likely to graduate than their counterparts. The author asks many policy questions that will need to be answered as higher education is held accountable for producing an educated workforce from the rapidly growing diverse population of the country.


2) Changing values in higher education impacting developmental education: Annotated bibliography
Arendale, D. (compiler)

Understanding the broader values and priorities in education can provide insight on trends that may have a dramatic impact upon developmental education and learning assistance programs nationwide. When advocating for programs with upper-level administrators or other policy makers, it is important to use language and concepts with which they are familiar. It helps to establish a common dialogue for more effective communication. There is much that developmental educators can contribute to the discussion on how to improve the learning culture of a campus.

As Dr. Steven Covey suggests in one of the Seven Habits of Highly Effective People, first seek to understand, then to be understood. It is important to read some of the publications that upper-level administrators often read at the institution such as the Chronicle of Higher Education and Change Magazine.

The following annotated bibliography provides an overview of selected recent publications related to issues that will impact postsecondary developmental education in the near future. Many of the documents are available through the Web as noted in the references. New citations will be added periodically to a searchable on-line database.

Astin, A. W. (1998). Remedial education and civic responsibility. National Crosstalk, 6(2), 12-13.

The author, director of the Higher Education Research Institute at UCLA, argues that remedial education is the most important problem in education today and providing instruction in this area would do more to alleviate more social and economic problems than any other activity. Astin discusses the history and stigma of remedial education and how higher education has become focused on “identifying smart students” rather than “developing smartness” in all its students. Astin argues that it is for the benefit of society that remedial education, affirmative action, and other programs be highly supported and valued.

Astin, A. W. (1999, Spring). Rethinking academic “excellence.” Liberal Education, 7-18.

The author, director of the Higher Education Research Institute at UCLA, argues that more resources should be invested in improving the learning systems at colleges. Rather than measuring the quality of student freshmen, the focus should be on the value-added experience of the college and the degree to which it has been a “talent developer” of the students. This provides useful language in describing the current and future role of developmental education and learning assistance programs.

Barr, R. B., & Tagg, J. (1995). From teaching to learning: A new paradigm for undergraduate education. Change Magazine, 27(6), 13-25.

This is one of the most often cited articles on this topic and is credited by some as helping to influence higher education significantly since it was published in a journal that is frequently read by college presidents and chief academic and student affair officers. According to the authors, a paradigm shift is occurring in American higher education. Under the traditional, dominant “Instruction Paradigm,” colleges are institutions that exist to provide instruction. Subtly but profoundly, however, a “Learning Paradigm” is taking hold, whereby colleges are institutions that exist to produce learning. This shift is both needed and wanted, and it changes everything. The writers provided a detailed matrix to compare the old instruction paradigm with the new learning paradigm in the following dimensions: mission and purposes, criteria for success, teaching/learning structures, learning theory, productivity/funding, and nature of roles.

Eaton, S. B., & Folstein, K. (1998). A national certification program for the developmental educator: What do we think? Learning Assistance Review, 3(2), 41-45.

The authors discuss the current debate over development of a certification program for those employed in the developmental education and learning assistance field. Considerable controversy surrounds the proposal since a sizeable portion of those currently employed in the field do not have formal credentials obtained through academic degree programs that relate to their current positions.

Lazerson, M., Wagener, U., & Shumanis, N. (1999). What makes a revolution: Teaching and learning in higher education, 1980-2000. Stanford, CA: National Center for Postsecondeary Improvement, Stanford University.  

The authors provide a review of the literature concerning trends and major writers on teaching and learning during the 1980s and 1990s. Some of the cited leaders are Alexander Astin, Derek Bok, Richard Light, Ernest Boyer, K. Patricia Cross, and Lee Shulman. The authors argue that a major paradigm shift occurred from the preoccupation from teaching to a focus on student learning and mastery. A summary of this long report was published by the authors in Change Magazine, May/June 2000, Volume 32, Number 3, pp. 12-19.

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