University of Minnesota
Driven to Discover


The intervention guides and materials below are targeted to meet student needs in the area of vocabulary.

Sight Word Flashcards

Objective: Students in grades K-3 will build accuracy and master a set of sight words using an incremental rehearsal flashcard approach.
Skill(s): Sight words
Intervention Need: Sight Word Flashcards
Intervention Guide: Sight Word Flashcards (kindergarten, first grade, second-third grade)
Intervention Materials:

Sight Word Bingo

Objective: Students will build automaticity and retention of a set of sight words using a version of “bingo” to practice the words.
Skill(s): Sight Words
Intervention Need: Automaticity and retention (achieve 95% accuracty with automatic responses in reading the sight words)
Intervention Guide: Sight Word Bingo
Intervention Materials:


Burns, M. K. (2005). Using incremental rehearsal to increase fluency of single-digit multiplication facts with
children identified as learning disabled in mathematics computation. Education and Treatment of Children, 28, 237-249.

Burns, M. K., (2007). Comparison of opportunities to respond within a drill model when rehearsing sight words
with a child with mental retardation. School Psychology Quarterly, 22, 250-263.

Gaskins, I., Ehri, L., Cress, C., O’Hara, C., & Donnelly, K. (1996). Procedures for word learning: Making discoveries
about words. The Reading Teacher, 50, 312-327.

Jenkins, J. R., Fuchs, L. S., Van Den Broek, P., Espin, C., & Deno, S. L. (2003). Sources of individual differences in
reading comprehension and reading fluency. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(4), 719.

Joseph, L.M. (2006). Incremental rehearsal: A flashcard drill technique for increasing retention of reading words.
The Reading Teacher, 59, 803-807.

Klauda, S. L., & Guthrie, J. T. (2008). Relationships of three components of reading fluency to reading
comprehension. Journal of Educational psychology, 100, 310.

MacQuarrie-Klender, L. L., Tucker, J. A., Burns, M. K., & Hartman, B. (2002). Comparison of retention rates using
traditional, drill sandwich, and incremental rehearsal flashcard methods. School Psychology Review, 31, 584–595.

McCormick, C., & Samuels, S. J. (1979). Word recognition by second graders: The unit of perception and
interrelationships among accuracy, latency, and comprehension. Journal of Literacy Research, 11, 107-118.


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Last modified on November 27, 2013.