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School RJ Research Links

See a new list of Outcome-Based Research for Restorative Approaches in Schools (compiled by Jon Kidde of Global Learning Partners)

Top Recent Research Studies on Restorative Justice and Restorative Discipline in Public Schools Located in the United States

1. Minnesota Study: 2013/2014

“Applying Restorative Justice Practices to Minneapolis Public Schools Students Recommended for Possible Expulsion: A Pilot Program Evaluation of the Family and Youth Restorative Conference Program” (Final Report). McMorris Barbara J, Beckman K, Shea G, Baumgartner J, & Eggert R. School of Nursing and Healthy Youth Development Prevention Research Center, University of Minnesota. (2014).

Final Report.

Executive Summary.

Stats-Sheet Summary (PDF).

2. Texas Study: 2012/2013

“Ed White Middle School Restorative Discipline Evaluation: Implementation & Impact, 2012/2013, Sixth Grade”, by Dr. Marilyn Armour.

For a list of Texas-based studies, including second- and third-year reports on Ed White Middle School, see the School RD resource page on the Institute of Restorative Justice and Restorative Dialogue website (Austin, Texas).

K-3 Elementary School study (First Year Implementation Evaluation)

3. Oakland, California Study: 2014

Restorative Justice in Oakland Schools: Implementation and Impacts 2014 – An effective strategy to reduce racially disproportionate discipline, suspensions and improve academic outcomes.

4. Chicago, Illinois Study: 2012

Restorative Justice in Chicago Public Schools (Spring 2012).


1. “Dignity, Disparity and Desistance: Effective Restorative Justice Strategies to Plug the School-to-Prison Pipeline.” By Mara Schiff, Ph.D., School of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Florida Atlantic University. Click here.

2. “The promise of restorative practices to transform teacher-student relationships and reduce racial disparities in exclusionary discipline”. By Anne Gregory of Rutgers University. Click here for her presentation.

3. For a comprehensive list of research articles on Discipline Disparity issues, click here.

New Study on Improving the Teacher-Student Relationship

“The Promise of Restorative Practices to Transform Teacher-Student Relationships and Achieve Equity in School Discipline.” Anne Gregory, Kathleen Clawson, Alycia Davis & Jennifer Gerewitz. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation. (2014)

Excerpt from concluding summary: “Teachers who were perceived by their students as frequently implementing many of the Restorative Practice (RP) elements tended to have better relationships with their students compared with infrequent implementers of RP. This was seen in the degree to which students felt respected by their teachers and teachers' use of disruption/defiance disciplinary referrals.”