Diane Wiese-Bjornstal, PhD

Professor, Sport and Exercise Psychology

Areas of Interest: Sports medicine psychology, youth sport science
Contact Information

Room 220B Cooke H
1900 University Ave SE
Minneapolis, 55455
612-625-6580
dwiese@umn.edu

 

BIOSKETCH

 

Diane M. Wiese-Bjornstal, Ph.D. is a Professor of Kinesiology-Sport & Exercise Psychology in the School of Kinesiology at the University of Minnesota-Minneapolis. She is the Director of the Sports Medicine Psychology Laboratory and an affiliated scholar with the Tucker Center for Research on Girls & Women in Sport. She is co-editor of the book Counseling in Sports Medicine, and has served on editorial boards for the Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, and Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. Dr. Bjornstal is a fellow of the Association for Applied Sport Psychology (AASP), and an AASP Certified Consultant in Sport Psychology. In 2009 she was named for a three year term to the Sport Science Advisory Board of the U.S. President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sport, and continues to serve as an associate editor for their publication Elevate Health.

About

EXPERTISE

 

Sports Medicine Psychology, Youth Sport Science

 

My primary line of research is in sports medicine psychology, encompassing multidisciplinary theory, research and practice in the psychological, behavioral, and social aspects of injury prevention and injury experiences among physically active populations across the lifespan.  Our Sports Medicine Psychology Laboratory group studies psychological and social factors that relate to physical activity injury risk, response and recovery, such as religiosity in coping with sport injury, cognitive and emotional responses of athletes to anterior cruciate ligament injury, psychological aspects of sport concussions, narratives of emotional response to microtrauma injuries among runners, and gender patterns in sport injuries.

 

My second major interest is youth sport science, focusing on children, youth and adolescents in sport and the psychological, social, and physical factors that affect their health and well-being at all levels of participation.  In 2009-2011 I headed a federally funded study that involved an exchange of coaching educators involved in training youth soccer coaches from across Uganda.  My affiliation with the Tucker Center for Research on Girls & Women in Sport has allowed me the chance to collaborate on multiple educational and civic engagement efforts geared towards youth sport science, including my appearance in a television documentary on concussion prevention and care among female athletes and writing significant portions of published reports on developing physically active girls.

 

GRADUATE EDUCATION APPOINTMENTS

  • Kinesiology Graduate Education Faculty
  • Prevention Science Graduate Education Faculty
  • Prevention Science Advisory Committee Member
  • Sport Management Graduate Education Faculty

CENTER AND LAB AFFILIATIONS

PROFESSIONAL CERTIFICATIONS AND MEMBERSHIPS

  • CC-AASP (Certified Consultant, Association for Applied Sport Psychology, Certification #168)
  • Christian Society for Kinesiology and Leisure Studies

RECENT GRANT SUPPORT

RECENT COURSES

  • KIN 3126W: Sport and Exercise Psychology
  • KIN 3136: Mental Skills Training for Sport
  • KIN 5375: Youth Sport Science
  • KIN 5720: Special Topics - Sports Performance Psychology
  • KIN 5723: Psychology of Sport Injury and Rehabilitation
  • KIN 8126: Sports Medicine Psychology
  • KIN 8980: Graduate Research Seminar in Kinesiology
  • KIN 8696: Internship-Applied Sport Psychology

PREVIOUS ADMINISTRATIVE APPOINTMENTS

  • Director of Graduate Studies, School of Kinesiology, 1997-2003
  • Director of Graduate Studies, School of Kinesiology, 2010-2013

PREVIOUS INSTITUTIONS

  • Northwestern College, Orange City, IA: Faculty in Physical Education, Head Softball and Volleyball Coach, 1982-1984
  • University of Wisconsin-River Falls: Head Softball Coach, 1981
Education
  • Ph.D., University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, 1989
    Major: physical education; Emphases: social psychology of sport, biomechanics

  • M.S., Springfield College, Springfield, MA, 1983
    Major: physical education; Emphases: teaching and administration, biomechanics

  • B.A., Luther College, Decorah, IA, 1980
    Major: physical education; Emphasis: K-12 teaching physical education; Minors: health education, coaching
Curriculum Vitae [PDF]
Selected Publications
  1. Russell, H. C., & Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2016). A narrative approach to understanding psychological stories of overuse injuries among long-distance runners. SAGE research methods cases. London, UK: Sage Publications. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781473971912

  2. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M., White, A. C., Wood, K. N., & Russell, H. C. (in press). Sports medicine psychology. In T. S. Horn & A. L. Smith (Eds.), Advances in sport and exercise psychology (4th ed.) (pp. xx-xx). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

  3. Russell, H. C., White, A. C., & Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2017). Physical and psychological changes during marathon training and running injuries: An interdisciplinary, repeated-measures approach. SAGE research methods cases. London, UK: Sage Publications. http://methods.sagepub.com/case/changes-during-marathon-training-and-running-injuries

  4. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M., Franklin, A. N., Dooley, T. N., Foster, M. A., & Winges, J. B. (2015). Observations about sports injury surveillance and sports medicine psychology among female athletes. Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal, 23, 64-73.

  5. Russell, H. C., & Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2015). Narratives of psychological response to microtrauma injury among long-distance runners. Sports, 3(3), 159-177. doi:10.3390/sports3030159

  6. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M., White, A. C., Russell, H. C., & Smith, A. M. (2015). Psychology of sport concussions. Kinesiology Review, 4, 169-189.

  7. Smith, A. M., Stuart, M. J., Dodick, D. W., Roberts, W. O., Alford, P. W., Ashare, A. B., ...Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. ( 2015). Ice Hockey Summit II: Zero tolerance for head hits and fighting. Published in Current Sports Medicine Reports, 14(2), 135-144, Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine, 25(2), 78-87, and Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 7(3), 283–295.

  8. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2014). Reflections on a quarter-century of research in sports medicine psychology. Revista de Psicologia del Deporte (Journal of Sport Psychology), 23(2), 411-421.

  9. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M., Kenow, L., & Flint, F. (2012). Psychological aspects of sport injury and rehabilitation. In S. Hillman (Ed.), Core concepts in athletic training (pp. 537-558). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

  10. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M., Albinson, C. B., Henert, S. E., Arendt, E. A., Schwenz, S. J., Myers, S. S., & Gardetto-Heller, D. M. (2012). Evaluating the dynamic model of psychological response to sport injury and rehabilitation. In J. H. Bastos & A. C. Silva (Eds.), Athlete performance and injuries (pp. 79-98). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.

  11. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2010). Psychology and socioculture affect injury risk, response, and recovery in high intensity athletes: A consensus statementScandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 20(Suppl. 2), 108-116.

  12. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2009). Sport injury & college athlete health across the lifespan.  Journal of Intercollegiate Sport, 2, 64-80.

  13. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M., LaVoi, N. M., & Omli, J. (2009). Child and adolescent development and sport participation. In B. Brewer (Ed.), International Olympic Committee (IOC) Medical Commission Handbook of Sports Medicine and Science: Sport Psychology Volume (pp. 97-112, Chapter 10). Blackwell Publishing, Ltd.

  14. Weiss, M. R., & Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2009, September). Promoting positive youth development through physical activity. President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports Research Digest, Series 10(3), p. 1-8.

  15. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M., & LaVoi, N. M. (2007, December). Girls' physical activity participation: Recommendations for best practices, programs, policies and research. In the 2007 Report of the Tucker Center for Research on Girls and Women in Sport, Developing physically active girls: An evidence-based multidisciplinary approach. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (pp.63-90).

  16. Ray, R., & Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (Co-Editors). (1999). Counseling in sports medicine. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

  17. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M., Smith, A. M., Shaffer, S. M., & Morrey, M. A. (1998). An integrated model of response to sport injury: Psychological and sociological dynamicsJournal of Applied Sport Psychology10, 46-69.

  18. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M., Smith, A. M., & LaMott, E. E. (1995). A model of psychologic response to athletic injury and rehabilitationAthletic Training: Sports Health Care Perspectives1(1), 16-30.

Selected Presentations
  1. Russell, H. C., Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M., Arendt, E. A., & Agel, J. (2016, October). Psychological predictors of disablement after ACL reconstruction. Paper  presented at the Canadian Society for Psychomotor Learning and Sport Psychology (SCAPPS), Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

  2. White, A., & Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2016, September). An applied behavior analysis approach to reducing poor sportsmanship and injury rates in youth football. Poster presented at the Association for Applied Sport Psychology Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ.

  3. Wood, K., & Wiese-Bjornstal, D. (2016, September). Increasing rehabilitation adherence through game-based technology. Paper presented at the Association for Applied Sport Psychology Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ.

  4. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M., Wood, K. N., White, A. C., Wambach, A. J., & Rubio, V. J. (2016, August). Christianity and sports medicine psychology. Paper presented at the Inaugural Global Congress on Sports and Christianity, York, England.

  5. Russell, H. C., White, A. C., O’Donnell, K., Rhodes, G. S., Lundstrom, C., Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M., & Ingraham, S. J. (2015, October). Mood disturbance, mileage, and intention to run another marathon: Experiences of marathon runners at one and two months post-marathon. Poster presented at the Association of Applied Sport Psychology (AASP) Annual Conference, Indianapolis, IN.

  6. Russell, H. C., Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M., Arendt, E. A., & Agel, J. (2015, June). Psychological responses and return to play following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery. Poster presented at the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity Annual Conference, Portland, OR.

  7. White, A. C., & Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2015, June). “No flag on the play”: Using behavioral modification to reduce injuries in youth football – A pilot study. Lecture presented at the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity Annual Conference, Portland, OR.

  8. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2015, April). Psychology of sport injury: What coaches need to know. Invited lecture presented at the Women Coaches Symposium “Empowering Women to Lead in the 21st Century”, Tucker Center for Research on Girls & Women in Sport, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.

  9. White, A. C., & Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2015, March). “No flag on the play”: Using behavioral modification to reduce injuries in youth football – A pilot study. Lecture presented at the Association for Applied Sports Psychology North Central Regional Conference, Mankato, MN.

  10. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2014, November). The integrated model of psychological response to sport injury. Invited lecture presented at the International Seminar on Sport Injuries: Psychology, Medicine, and Other Sciences, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

  11. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2014, October). “Study the past if you would define the future” (Confucius): An historical perspective on the psychology of sport injury. Invited panel of three pioneers in sport injury psychology, presented with J. Williams & J. Heil at the Association for Applied Sport Psychology Annual Conference, Las Vegas, NV.

  12. Russell, H. C., Rhodes, G., Lundstrom, C., Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M., & Ingraham, S. (2014, June). Life stress: A psychological predictor of injury in marathon training? Talk presented at the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity Annual Conference, Minneapolis, MN.

  13. Russell, H. C., Rhodes, G. S., Lundstrom, C., Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M., & Ingraham, S. J. (2014, May). Psychological predictors of physiological measures in novice marathon runners. Poster presented at the American College of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL.

  14. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2014, February). Discovering your niche in sport psychology. Professional panel discussion with C. Kamphoff, N. LaVoi, & J. Blanton presented at the North Central Region Conference of the Association for Applied Sport Psychology, Mankato, MN.

  15. Russell, H. C., Rhodes, G., Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M., & Ingraham, S. J. (2014, February). Psychological predictors of physical performance and injury in novice marathon runners. Lecture presented at the Association for Applied Sport Psychology North Central Regional Conference, Mankato, MN.

  16. White, A., & Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2014, February). “No flag on the play”: Using behavioral modification to reduce injuries in youth football. Lecture presented at the Association for Applied Sport Psychology North Central Regional Conference, Mankato, MN.

  17. Bentley, S., Russell, H.C., Wiese-Bjornstal, D.M., & Ingraham, S. J. (2014, February). Psychological predictors of injury in distance runners. Lecture presented at the Association for Applied Sport Psychology North Central Regional Conference, Mankato, MN.

  18. Russell, H. C., Rhodes, G., Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M., & Ingraham, S. J. (2014, February). Psychological predictors of physical performance and injury in novice marathon runners. Lecture presented at the Association for Applied Sport Psychology North Central Regional Conference, Mankato, MN.

  19. Bentley, S., Russell, H.C., Wiese-Bjornstal, D.M., & Ingraham, S. J. (2014, February). Psychological predictors of injury in distance runners. Lecture presented at the Association for Applied Sport Psychology North Central Regional Conference, Mankato, MN.

  20. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2013, October). Psychology approaches to prevention and rehabilitation for female athletes. Invited keynote presented at Female Athletes and Injury: Prevention, Treatment and Recovery Conference, University of North Carolina-Greensboro, Greensboro, NC.

  21. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2013, October). Are concussion risks greater for athletes who are female, pediatric, or have emotional and behavioral disorders? Invited talk presented at the Ice Hockey Summit II: Action on Concussion, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

  22. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2013, October). Education and prevention action on concussion. Invited talk presented at the Ice Hockey Summit II: Action on Concussion, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

  23. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2013, October). Sports medicine psychology: Psychological and social dimensions of sport injury. Invited keynote given at Northland Regional Chapter of the American College of Sportsmedicine Fall Tutorial Meeting, Eau Claire, WI.

  24. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2013, May). Psychological aspects of returning to sport following injury: Adding the PARTS to the whole. Invited talk presented at Fairview Current Concepts in Sports Medicine spring conference, Edina, MN.

  25. Russell, H. C., Steele, R., Hoppis, S., Franklin, A., & Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2013, April). Microtrauma sport injury psychology narratives among long-distance runners. Lecture presented at the 2013 Research Consortium Conference of the American Alliance of Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, Charlotte, NC.

  26. Russell, H. C., Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M., Arendt, E. A., & Agel, J. (2013, March). Psychological and physical predictors of return to activity among adolescent athletes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Poster presented at the School of Kinesiology Research Day, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.

  27. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2013, February). Sport medicine psychology: Encompassing multidisciplinary theory, research, and practice. Invited keynote presented at the North Central Sport Psychology Conference, Mankato, MN.

  28. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2013, February).Youth development through physical activity. Round table discussion leader at the North Central Sport Psychology Conference, Mankato, MN.

  29. Russell, H. C., & Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2013, February). Psychological effectiveness of return to sport training programs in ACL rehabilitation. Lecture presented at the North Central Sport Psychology Conference, Mankato, MN.

  30. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2012, September). Female athlete concussions. Invited talk presented at Mayo Clinic Symposium on Concussion in Sport, Scottsdale, AZ.

  31. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2012, April). The untold story on concussion and the female athlete. Invited talk presented at USA Hockey American Development Model (ADM) Symposium, Burlington, VT.

  32. Steele, R., & Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2012, February). Life stressors and sport injury: The role of perfectionism. Lecture presented at the Midwest Sport and Exercise Psychology Symposium Annual Meeting, Lansing, MI.

  33. Russell, H. R., Steele, R., Franklin, A., Hoppis, S., & Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2012, February). Acute and chronic sport injury narratives among runners. Lecture presented at the Midwest Sport and Exercise Psychology Symposium Annual Meeting, Lansing, MI.

  34. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2011, October). Understanding the psychological story of sport injury. Invited talk presented as the Fourth Annual Cheryl Cohen Lecture in Sport Psychology, Western Illinois University, Macomb, IL.

  35. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2011, October). Sport injury psychology and socioculture. Invited talk presented to graduate students in sport psychology at Western Illinois University, Macomb, IL.

  36. Omli, J., Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M., Kyambadde, S. N., & Barker, I. (2011, September). The International Sport Connection: Using sport psychology for community development and diplomacy. Lecture presented at the Association for Applied Sport Psychology Annual Conference, Honolulu, HI.

  37. LaVoi, N. M., Omli, J., & Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2011, September). The youth sport spectator model: An ecological integration of literature. Lecture presented at the Association for Applied Sport Psychology Annual Conference, Honolulu, HI.

  38. Winges, J. B., & Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2011, September). Effects of background anger on player feelings & performance in youth ice hockey. Poster presented at the Association for Applied Sport Psychology Annual Conference, Honolulu, HI.

  39. LaRue, M. J., & Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2011, September). The role of certified athletic trainers in the recognition and referral of mental health issues in intercollegiate student-athletes. Poster presented at the Association for Applied Sport Psychology Annual Conference, Honolulu, HI.

  40. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2011, April). Female athlete concussions: Description, surveillance, & risk. Invited talk presented as part of the Distinguished Lecture Series of the Tucker Center for Research on Girls & Women in Sport session on Female athletes and concussions, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN. Retrievable at http://tuckercenter.wordpress.com/2011/04/20/watch-the-video-of-the-female-athlete-and-concussions/

  41. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2011, March). Psychosocial aspects of athletic training. Invited talk presented at the Great Lakes Athletic Trainers’ Association (GLATA) Annual Clinical Symposium, Minneapolis, MN.

  42. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2010, October). The science of aggression and reinforcement in ice hockey: Implications for concussion risk and consequence. Invited talk presented at the Ice Hockey Summit: Action on Concussion, Mayo Clinic Sports Medicine Center, Rochester, MN. Retrievable at http://www.iihf.com/fileadmin/user_upload/BigFiles/Concussion%20Summit%20-%20Action%20on%20Concussion%20Brochure.pdf

  43. Winges, J. B., Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M., Goral, S. E., Palmer, A. H., & Nelson, D. J. (2010, October). Perceptions of background anger in youth ice hockey. Poster presented at the Association for Applied Sport Psychology Annual Conference, Providence, RI.

  44. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2010, October). Programmatic and curricular evolution in sport psychology graduate studies within kinesiology programs. In L.C. Blom, H. Barber, P. McCullagh, & D.M. Wiese-Bjornstal, Teaching sport and exercise psychology: New issues, perspectives, approaches, and techniques. Symposium presented at the Association for Applied Sport Psychology Annual Conference, Providence, RI.

  45. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2010, October). Does gender matter in sport injury occurrence and socioculture? In D. M. Wiese-Bjornstal, A. N. Franklin, J. B. Winges, M. A. Foster, & T. N. Robertson, Sport injury psychology and socioculture: Does gender matter? Symposium presented at the Association for Applied Sport Psychology Annual Conference, Providence, RI.

  46. Kenow, L., & Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2010, October). Risk Behavior Conformity in Sport Injury Questionnaire (RBCSI): Preliminary evidence in support of a new measure. Lecture presented at the Association for Applied Sport Psychology Annual Conference, Providence, RI.

  47. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M., Franklin, A. N., Winges, J. B., Foster, M. A., & Robertson, T. N. (2009, November). Sport injury psychology and socioculture: Does gender matter? Invited talk presented at the Tucker Table of the Tucker Center for Research on Girls and Women in Sport, Minneapolis, MN. Retrievable at http://tuckercenter.wordpress.com/2009/11/30/psychology-and-socioculture-of-sport-injury-does-gender-matter/

  48. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2009, October). Sport specialization for young athletes. Invited talk presented at the Twin Cities Sports Medicine Continuing Education Conference, Minneapolis, MN.

  49. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2009, September). Psychology and socioculture affect sport injury risk, consequence and recovery in elite high intensity athletes. Invited talk presented at the International Consensus Conference on Performance in Top Sports Involving Intense Exercise (sponsored by the International Olympic Committee Sportsmedicine Division, University of Copenhagen, and Team Denmark), Copenhagen, Denmark.

  50. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2009, May). Using effective interaction skills in sports medicine practice. Invited talk presented at the Minnesota Athletic Trainers’ Association Annual Meeting, St. Cloud, MN.

  51. Kihl, L. A., & Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2009, March). Safe or out: Using community action research to transform the environment for youth baseball at an urban recreation center. Poster presented at the College of Education and Human Development Research Day, Minneapolis, MN.

  52. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2009, January). Sport injury & college athlete health across the lifespan. Invited reaction to talk, “Play at your own risk: Sport and the injury epidemic”, given by R. Zernicke, K. Antle, S. McLean, R. Palmieri-Smith, J. Ashton Miller, & E. Wojtysto, presented at the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Scholarly Colloquium, “Paying the Price: Is Excellence in Sport Compatible with Good Health?” Washington, DC.

  53. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2008, October). The 2007 Tucker Center Research Report - Developing physically active girls: An evidence-based multidisciplinary approach. Invited talk presented at the Mayo Clinic Summit on Obesity, Rochester, MN.

  54. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2008, September). Developing physically active young people: An evidence-based multidisciplinary approach. Invited talk given at the TRIA Sports Medicine and Orthopaedic Continuing Education Conference, Bloomington, MN.

  55. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2008, May). Physical activity as a context for developing physical competencies, skills and assets. Invited talk given as part of a team presentation, Using physical activity as a context for positive youth development (along with colleagues LaVoi, N.M., & Weiss, M.R.), at the Applied Research Collaborative on Youth Development Inquiry to Impact Meeting, Minneapolis, MN.

  56. Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2008, April). Developing physically active girls: An evidence-based multidisciplinary approach. Psychological Dimensions and Best Practices. Invited talk given at the Distinguished Lecture Series of the Tucker Center for Research on Girls and Women in Sport, Minneapolis, MN.

  57. LaVoi, N. M., & Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2008, February). Developing physically active girls: An evidence-based multidisciplinary model. Poster presented at the College of Education and Human Development Research Day, Minneapolis, MN.