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CEHD Research Day

CEHD Research Day showcases the impact of college research on our lives. Research Day 2017 was held Tuesday, March 28, in Memorial Hall at McNamara Alumni Center.

Research Day 2017 Posters

Education Research and Educational Equity

Battle School Study

Author(s):Jonathan Shoberg, Nicolaas VanMeerten, Keisha Varma
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" The Battle School Study considers the concept of situated learning by examining how people learn in the context of a multiplayer video game environment. This study takes place through the commercial video game League of Legends, an extremely popular competitive multiplayer game created by Riot Games, on account of both having a large pool of potential participants to draw from as well as serving as a mostly isolated learning environment. The Battle School Study is structured as a case study, closely following three participants of various skill levels playing League of Legends over the course of two weeks, where their behavior as they play the game are recorded and they write journal entries reflecting on their performance. Using this data, as well as information gathered from semi-structured interviews, we hope to determine how different methods of learning League of Legends vary by skill level, opening the door for further research on the matter, as well as showcasing the usefulness of commercial video games as a research environment."

Building Quality Early Childhood Assessment: What Really Matters?

Author(s):Ann E. Bailey, M.A.
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Measuring child outcomes has become critical to determining the return on investment for the ongoing funding of early childhood education. McNair et al. (2003) found that early educators reported finding implementing the fundamental requirements of ongoing assessment difficult, including embedding assessment into daily practice, data collection and analysis, and knowing how to use those data to influence classroom practices and learning. The intent of this research was to gather evidence that described and defined those critical assessment components and strategies that early educators use and need to implement authentic assessment with fidelity. The results demonstrate that early educators rely most heavily on their existing knowledge of child development and previous experience working with young children to conduct assessment. Educators also rely, to a lesser degree, on the assessment professional development they receive and the supports associated with the assessment tool they use. None of the teachers cited their college coursework as a strong influence on their ability to conduct high quality early childhood assessment. The results of the research are intended to further what is currently known about individual teachers’ assessment practices, what strategies best support the implementation of assessment, and those attitudes and behaviors that make implementation difficult.

Cognitive, Social, and Emotional Learning through Games (CSEL)

Author(s):Yu-Chi Wang, Jenifer Doll, Keisha Varma
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Local Minnesota youth will be invited to participate in after-school programming to promote skills that are part of new school reform efforts to increase student learning outcomes. The program will provide opportunities for students to increase critical thinking skills and social and emotional competencies through a highly engaging and interactive game-centered environment. Research will feature a STEM-based digital game developed to assess the role of agency in content retention and the commercial board games, Dixit and Mysterium, to assess the differential effects of playing competitive versus cooperative games on enhancement of cooperative learning skills. The research will be primarily experimental but will also involve observational measures. This study will target 5th to 8th grade students over a 6-week period, utilizing a pretest-posttest(-delayed posttest) randomized control trial experimental design. Results from this study could help support the incorporation and development of more engaging digital and non-digital games in classrooms.

Developing a Measure for Quality Instruction in Community College Algebra Courses with a Mathematical Procedure Focus

Author(s):Dexter Lim, Vilma Mesa, Irene Duranczyk, Angeliki Mali, Laura Watkins, April Ström, Nidhi Kohl
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Intermediate and College level algebra courses in community colleges play a role in equipping students with foundations for mathematics classes in universities. Working on a federally funded research project (Watkins, Duranczyk, Mesa, Ström, & Kohli, 2016) investigating ​community college algebra courses​, I am assisting in the adaptation of the Mathematical Quality of Instruction (MQI) a video analysis tool used in P-12 settings (Learning Mathematics for Teaching Project, 2011) and the Quality of Instructional Practices in Algebra (QIPA), an algebra-specific observational instrument developed from MQI to analyze the procedural elements of high school algebra course (Litke, 2015). Using Studiocode, video taped classroom instruction is analyzed capturing instances of 12 quality instructional characteristics. This poster presents the challenges that we encounter in the adaptation and calibration of the video analysis tools. We collected pilot data from 6 community college algebra instructors with approximately 160 students. Preliminary data, challenges, and adaptation will be presented. Visit the website here

Do Both Parental and Personal Values and Expectations Influence Young Adult’s Financial Behaviors and Well-Being?

Author(s):Sarah A. Burcher, Sun-Kyung Lee, Joyce Serido
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the process by which parental and personal financial expectations and values influence young adults’ financial behaviors and in turn their financial well-being. Guided by Expectancy-Value Theory (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002), we hypothesize that after accounting for parental factors, personal expectations and values will positively predict financial behaviors and well-being. OLS hierarchical regression analyses estimated the relation of parental factors (values, expectations) and personal factors (values, expectations) on financial behavior (model 1); and financial well-being (model 2), accounting for financial behavior. When predicting financial well-being, personal expectations are three times, and financial behavior is twice that of parental expectations. Interestingly, personal values are predictive only of financial behavior, demonstrating that perhaps values are transformed into behavior. Understanding the interactive nature of internalizing expectations and values, as young adults separate from parents and begin making independent financial choices, will help financial education programs focus on application, increasing young adults’ confidence.

Does Entrepreneurship Training Work? Evidence from Three Programs

Author(s):Elisabeth E. Lefebvre; Nancy Pellowski Wiger; David W. Chapman; and Joan G. DeJaeghere
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Alleviating poverty is one of the central challenges facing the majority world. An estimated 1.2 billion people live in extreme poverty (e.g. living on less than $1.90 per day). One solution has been to help individuals find or create employment that provides them with a living wage. Yet, youth from economically disadvantaged backgrounds frequently lack the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to be competitive for such opportunities. The Learn, Earn, Save project, funded by The MasterCard Foundation, has involved three NGOs in East Africa aimed at helping youth develop in these areas. The University of Minnesota was contracted to conduct a five-year longitudinal evaluation in which we followed a cohort of youth who participated in these NGO-sponsored programs. Using data from pre- and post-program surveys and interviews we focused on two questions: (1) Did youth learn the intended knowledge, skills, and attitudes? And (2) what was the impact of training on their long-term livelihoods? Findings indicate that while youth generally learned the intended knowledge and skills, programs primarily developed non-economic outcomes, such as youth’s social networks; increased youth’s self-confidence; and improved youth’s standings in their families. Additionally, youth continued to face considerable constraints and most were unable to move (and stay) out of poverty.

Don't Forget Me: The Power of Being Remembered on a Teacher's Pedagogical Development

Author(s):Jeff Henning-Smith
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Teachers often want to be remembered. A bittersweet aspect for many teachers lies in the loss of their class at the end of each school year. Many teachers, aware of their fleeting time, desire to live on in the memories of their students. How we want to be remembered has the power to alter how we operate in the present and plan for the future. Statements of remembrance could be seen as an indicator of either their own pedagogical beliefs, or the normed beliefs they feel obligated to espouse. This pedagogical tension I argue is present in all teachers, but especially in beginning teachers, as they attempt to find and develop their teacher identity. Often teachers respond by trying to legitimate their ‘rightful’ place in the teaching profession. This paper attempts to highlight the influence of teaching discourses on the individual teacher’s pedagogical development by answering the question: What do teacher statements on how they want to be remembered tell us about how they see teaching as an act of doing and a way of being? Using Theo van Leeuwen’s concept of legitimization, I found teachers attempting to navigate/resist the influence of discourses on their developing teacher pedagogy.

Exploring Changes in Science Teachers’ Attitudes Toward Culturally Diverse Students During an Induction Course

Author(s):Preethi Titu, Elizabeth A. Ring, Julie C. Brown, and Gillian H. Roehrig
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In recent decades, schools in most Western countries, including the United States, have become increasingly culturally diverse and as global migration continues to rise, cultural diversity in schools will continue to grow worldwide. Though an expansive research base has shown that teacher beliefs and attitudes play an important role in student performance, little is known about science teachers’ attitudes about cultural diversity or about teaching culturally diverse students. The purpose of this study was to explore how the attitudes of secondary science teachers toward teaching culturally diverse students were influenced by a 4-week-long induction course which focused on equitable science teaching. We analyzed two primary data sources: teacher responses to an attitude-eliciting, card-sort activity during the first and last weeks of the course, as well as semi-structured interviews following each card-sort activity. Findings indicate that teachers felt more prepared to work with their culturally diverse students, seemed to understand that a power shift in the classroom is beneficial to the students’ learning, and recognized the richness of information that diversity can provide to a classroom. Our findings suggest that engaging teachers in opportunities to be introduced to, think about, and reflect upon ideas related to Culturally Responsive Teaching, positively impact their attitudes and beliefs about teaching culturally diverse students and the students themselves.

Exploring Student Engagement in an Augmented Reality Game

Author(s):Nicolaas VanMeerten and Keisha Varma
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It has been argued that approaches to education should embed learning in activities that reflect the social and physical environments in which the knowledge is relevant. Only recently, did it become possible to situate learning in a variety of novel contexts using augmented reality (AR) games. This study investigates the behaviors of middle school students during their participation in an AR game called Play the Past. The findings of this study show that engagement differed during discrete activities in the game environment and that there was a relationship between the roles that students were assigned and their engagement.

Factors Influencing Technology Use by Licensed Parenting Educators

Author(s):Susan K. Walker and Seonghee Hong
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This study examined technology use by school district based, licensed parenting educators, a population not traditionally studied in education technology research. Parenting education through schools can influence parents’ engagement in children’s’ learning and school achievement. A modified Technology Acceptance Model (TAM, Davis, 1989) was the theoretical base, with context factors (workplace conditions) and age included as predictors of attitudes and use. Structural equation modeling revealed that attitudes are directly related to use and attitude precursors (perceived ease of use and perceived technology usefulness), age, and workplace conditions act as significant indirect factors. Descriptive analysis indicates that parenting educators rely primarily on email, Internet search tools and document preparation; social media, blogs and texting are rarely employed. Given that these parent educators teach primarily Millennial generation adults, results support school district educator technology policies, resources and training to extend to and address the skills of these professionals.

GopherMath Project

Author(s):Kathleen Cramer, Erin Baldinger, Keisha Varma, Robin Codding, Michele Mazzocco, Stacey Brandjord, and Chelsey Fagerlund
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GopherMath is supported by Generation Next, University of Minnesota President’s office, and the Campbell family foundation. This collaborative project involves faculty from Curriculum and Instruction, Educational Psychology, Institute of Child Development, and teachers from one Minneapolis Public school with a high Somali population. This collaboration builds the Rational Number Project, a long term research project at the University. There are three components to this project. One component is to work closely with 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade teachers to optimize their use of the RNP fraction curricula to support students’ fraction learning. Another component involves supporting students’ whole number work through a whole number intervention implemented by teachers with students. The third component involves the development of a parent program to provide a forum for communicating with parents from the Somali community about mathematics teaching and learning. The parent workshops focus on fostering productive mindsets in learning mathematics, why fraction instruction is taught using concrete models and other representations, and helping parents maximize their role in supporting their students to learn mathematics. Data is being collected to assess the project’s impact on students’ learning of whole numbers and fractions, teachers’ use of the curricula, and beliefs and attitudes among parents.

Learning of Ratio and Proportion Problem-Solving Using Schema-Based Instruction: A Replication Study

Author(s):Asha K. Jitendra, Michael R. Harwell, Im, S-H., Karl, S. R., Slater, S. C., and Simonson, G. R.
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This study aimed to replicate and generalize findings that demonstrated the efficacy of schema-based instruction (SBI) on students’ learning of ratios and proportional relationships (Jitendra et al., 2015). Specifically, the intent of the study was to determine whether the impact of SBI would replicate in different geographical regions of the country and in schools that are more demographically diverse than in the initial study (Jitendra et al., 2015). Using a randomized controlled study, intervention, and outcome measures, this study was replicated in 59 seventh-grade mathematics classes in a geographically diverse location. A measure of proportional problem solving (PPS) was administered at pre- and post-testing, and at 9 weeks following treatment, along with a general mathematical problem solving measure at pre- and post-testing. On the PPS, students in the treatment condition outperformed students in the control condition at immediate posttest (g = 0.48) and at delayed posttest (g = 0.28). These effects are similar to the effects obtained in the initial study (Jitendra et al., 2015). In addition, there were statistically significant differences on the general mathematics problem solving measure (g = 0.25).

LENA Start: Minnesota - Implementation Results

Author(s):Scott McConnell, Erin Lease, and Gerri Fisher
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LENA is a parent education program designed specifically to help parents engage their young children and support positive interactions and the development of early  language. LENA Start is implemented in Minnesota by a consortium involving the University of Minnesota and community-based partners, including: Think Small, Minneapolis Public Schools, Wayzata Public Schools, and Anoka-Hennepin Public Schools. Over the course of the first phase on implementation, over 150 families and child care providers will participate in LENA Start across the metropolitan area. This poster describes early evidence of implementation and program results.

Making More of Math Instruction

Author(s):Allison Bock, Taylor Praus, Michele Mazzocco
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This project is designed to evaluate the link between mathematical thinking and executive function (EF) skills in early childhood. EF skills are foundational in that they facilitate children’s ability to pay attention, wait their turn, and consider different approaches to solving a problem. These skills may support mathematical learning. In this proof of concept study, we examine whether high-quality instruction that supports both mathematical and EF skills synergistically promotes mathematical thinking.
Participants are Minneapolis Public School pre-kindergarten students. We screened the participants and paired them based on their math and EF scores. Paired children completed six sequential sessions of activities focused on either number or spatial skills. We are assessing children on math skills before and after they complete the sessions (measured by subtests of the Research-based Early Math Assessment learning trajectories; Clements and Sarama, 2016).
Data collection is complete for half the sample (approximately 20). We aim to present preliminary data on the frequency of concordant and discordant math/EF scores among individuals and their math assessments. Later, microgenetic analyses will help us determine whether math gains are supported by EF assistance/challenges presented during activities. The next phase of the study will include a control condition.

Minnesota Educator Dispositions System (MnEDS) 2015-16 Year 1 Pilot Results

Author(s):Misty Sato, Faculty C&I; Miranda Schornack, Doctoral Candidate C&I; Jehanne Beaton, School Liaison Coordinator Office of Teacher Education ; Jenna Cushing-Leubner, Doctoral Candidate C&I; Su Jung Kim, Doctoral Candidate C&I; Jessica Tobin, Post-Doctoral Fellow; Justin Jimenez, Doctoral Candidate OLPD; Amanda Shopa, Doctoral Student C&I
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We report the results of the 2015-16 Year 1 Pilot of the Minnesota Educator Dispositions System (MnEDS) developed by a team of researchers in CEHD with broad stakeholder input. In 2015-2016, the MnEDS assessment was implemented across eight teacher licensure programs, with 79 teacher candidates participating in formal assessment processes and 47 of those candidates completing a survey about their coached experience. In addition, 36 cooperating teachers participated, 29 from Minneapolis Public Schools and 7 from St. Paul Public Schools and five group interviews with instructors, supervisors, and cooperating teachers included a total of 21 participants. Results are analyzed and reported using an innovative consequential validity framework including: educational impact, meaningfulness of the assessment experience, directness of the assessment process and feedback for learner improvement, transparency of the assessment process, fairness of the assessment process, and usability of the assessment tools. The overall results are promising in terms of the meaningfulness and educational impact when identifying equity as a core aspect of learning to teach. The results reveal challenges in making the assessment process transparent and usable, primarily due to the adoption of a new digital platform and the limitations we encountered within this platform. Next steps for Pilot Year 2 are identified.

Money Management & Technology: Financial Practices of College Students

Author(s):Vilma Quito Fernandez and Virginia Solis Zuiker
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The past decade has experienced exponential growth of personal technology devices and applications to enhance personal money management. This study examined 129 undergraduate students between the ages of 18-25 at a large Midwestern University to determine if college students are using technology to manage their finances and if so, what methods of technology are they using. Results indicate that the majority of college students use technology to manage personal finances (97.7%). The following devices were rated of highest use: a personal computer at home (92.2%), a smartphone (57.4%), and a cell phone (not internet enabled) (27.1%). While college students exceed in their use of technology, results also showed that they lack knowledge on personal finances. Understanding the significance of technology device use in money management practices of college students provides parents, financial professionals, and educators with relevant tools to promote better money management practices.

Observing the Effects of Scratch Learning on Elementary School Girls’ Interest and Engagement in Computer Science

Author(s):Christina Zdawczyk, Keisha Varma
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Research shows that female understanding of negative stereotypes regarding their role in STEM fields can harm female performance in these fields (Huguet & Regner, 2007). Additionally, when girls feel stereotype threat, or the fear that they may confirm a negative stereotype, sense of belonging within that field is reduced (Steele, 1997). Existing negative stereotypes deter girls from feeling interest and sense of belonging in computer science; however, mitigating stereotype threat has been proven possible through manipulating classroom environments (Master, Cheryan, and Meltzoff, 2015). In this case study, six female elementary school students from a diverse, urban elementary school will participate in an after-school program on computer science. The program will be twelve weeks long, with two 90-minute classes each week. Students will be taught computational thinking concepts using Scratch. This study will examine how elementary school girls learn computational thinking concepts, as well as girls’ interest and sense of belonging in computing fields. Throughout the program, students will be asked to reflect on their experiences as they participate in activities. Students will solve problems in Scratch, and a think-aloud protocol will be utilized to observe both how students approach these problems and how they are utilizing computational thinking skills.

Playing the Female Athlete: Elite Sportswomen’s Choices of Self-Representation in Autonomous Media Outlets

Author(s):Anna Baeth, M.S.
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In 2016, Serena Williams was named Sportsperson of the Year by Sports Illustrated. Consumer responses to the celebratory cover of Sports Illustrated (Williams in a small black bodysuit draped across an ornate golden throne) were immediate and dichotomizing. Sports Illustrated responded swiftly, highlighting that Williams chose the photo herself. Williams' choice is consistent with the literature that a majority of elite female athletes portray themselves – often to their disadvantage – as simultaneously athletically competent (the queen of the court) and as sexually appealing (in a lacy dress). Given the emergence of globalized and instantaneous social media, athletes – female athletes in particular – have more opportunity and autonomy to brand themselves. The primary purpose of this study is to discern how four elite female athletes chose to be portrayed in self-dictated media outlets. This study serves to answer the questions: 1. In what ways do elite female athletes sell themselves / their personal brands through the social media outlets of Twitter, SnapChat, and Facebook? 2. Do elite sportswomen sell themselves differently from one another (depending on their race, sexual orientation, and sport type)? 3. How do consumers of varying ages, sexual orientations, races, and genders understand the ways elite sportswomen sell themselves / their brands? Wielding potential answers to these questions, scholars and sport management professionals alike may gain insight into the experiences of elite female athletes and more significantly, the (constructed and contested) systems within which sportswomen make decisions.

Research, Evaluation, and Assessment Services at CAREI

Author(s):Danielle Dupuis and Delia Kundin
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CAREI’s mission is to improve the quality of education for all learners, thereby society as a whole. We do this through four service offerings: (a) evaluation, (b) research, (c) assessment, and (d) innovation & outreach. As applied researchers and evaluators, we believe we can have an immediate impact on our communities. Accordingly, we listen to and work with our clients and partners to understand their experiences. CAREI seeks to impact 80% of Minnesota students within five years. Research, Development and Engagement PRE-AWARD SERVICES • Proposal writing • Research design/evaluation design • Assessment selection and design • Power and sample size analyses POST-AWARD SERVICES • Study implementation support • Data collection support • Data entry, cleaning, and management • Quantitative data analysis • Qualitative data analysis • Interpretation/reporting of findings

The Scientific Basis of the Lack of Replicability in Psychological Research

Author(s):Thomas J. Smith
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The issue of lack of replicability of psychological research recently has attracted intense scrutiny. A prominent example is the Open Science Collaboration (Science, 2015), in which 270 researchers collaborated in an attempt to replicate 100 studies published in three prominent psychology journals. Only 39% of studies were unambiguously replicated, casting doubt on the credibility of psychological science. This presentation argues that the pervasive role of context (e.g., design) specificity in behavioral performance and learning (Smith et al., 2015) poses a formidable human factors challenge to rigorous replicability in psychological research. Van Bevel and colleagues (2016) point out that, because of this influence, it is hard to re-create the exact conditions of the original research. Attempting a replication in a different time or place or with a different sample can compromise replicability efforts, suggesting that many variables in psychology cannot be fully understood apart from the design contexts that define their meanings. Yet the most profound implication of the role of context in replicability is the likelihood that research findings based on laboratory designs may have minimal applicability to real world contexts — such as actual learning environments — with dramatically different designs. This presentation will offer a human factors perspective on the replicability issue, and possible strategies for dealing with it.

"TLC" for Teachers: Supporting Data-Based Instruction with Tools, Learning, and Collaborative Supports

Author(s):Kristen L. McMaster, Jaehyun Shin, Kyle Wagner, Britta Bresina
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The purpose of this development project was to examine the feasibility and promise of a professional development model called “Data-Based Instruction: Tools, Learning, and Collaborative Support” (DBI-TLC) designed to support teachers’ use of DBI to improve students’ early writing outcomes. The focus of the poster will be a pilot study conducted in Year 3 of the 3-year project, in which we asked: What is the effect of teachers’ participation in DBI-TLC on (a) teachers’ DBI knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy and (b) children’s early writing outcomes? Twenty special education teachers in two Midwestern districts were assigned randomly to DBI-TLC or to a control group. DBI-TLC teachers implemented DBI with students (n = 57) for 20 weeks. Results revealed that DBI-TLC teachers reliably outperformed controls at posttest on a DBI knowledge and skills measure (d = 3.05). Further, DBI-TLC teachers shifted to a more explicit orientation in writing compared to control teachers at posttest (p=.001). Hierarchical linear modeling (with students nested within teachers) revealed that, on proximal measures, effect sizes favored students who received DBI (d = .22 to .49). On distal measures, effect sizes were small (d = .10-.18). Findings indicate that DBI-TLC has promise to improve teacher and student outcomes.

The Trend of Participation, and Performance by Students Receiving Special Education Services Over Time

Author(s):Yi-Chen Wu; Martha, L. Thurlow; Sheryl, S. Lazarus
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Using state assessment data for2007-08 to 2013-14 school year, we present information on participation and performance in reading and mathematics statewide assessments administered to students in grades 3-8 and high school. Students with disabilities may participate in the regular assessment or in alternate assessments designated for students receiving special education services. In this study, 21 states submitted data for the regular assessment and the alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards and with no missing data from 2007-08 to 2013-14; these states were included in this analysis. Total participation rates of students with disabilities were typically 90% or higher across all states. The results showed the direction of gaps in the participation rates between reading and math were in the opposite direction for lower grades and high school (with math higher in the earlier grades). The same pattern was found in the gaps between participation and performance rates in AA-AAS. The year effect was found significant for performance rates only at lower grade levels for both reading and math regular assessments, but no significant performance difference was found for the AA-AAS across years.

U.S. and East Asian educators’ reflections on how stigmatization affects parent-educator relationships

Author(s):Misa Kayama, Wendy Haight, and Minhae Cho
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This study examines the reflections of elementary school educators in Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and the US on how stigma affects their relationships with parents whose children have disabilities and how they respond to these challenges. We conducted cross-cultural analyses of individual, audio recorded interviews with 26 Japanese, 43 Korean, 16 Taiwanese and 18 US educators, including school social workers. Educators from all four cultural groups characterized the development of collaborative relationships with parents as critical to supporting the school success of children with disabilities. They also described challenges posed by stigmatization to those relationships, and solutions to those challenges. Japanese educators watched over, carefully guided, and expressed empathy to parents responding to stigmatization. South Korean educators avoided openly indicating children's struggles to parents, but provided them with education about disabilities to counter misperceptions. Taiwanese educators exercised patience with parents who expressed distress due to stigmatization, and concealed their own negative emotional responses to such displays. US educators engaged parents through fact-oriented, solution-focused responses to children's struggles. The perspectives of educators from diverse contexts can be used to identify cultural blind spots, and develop effective culture- and stigma-sensitive strategies to build relationships with parents to better support children with disabilities.

Autism and Developmental Disabilities

Comparing Automated Facial Coding to The Pain and Discomfort Scale: A Pilot Study in a Clinical Sample with Rett Syndrome

Author(s):Alyssa Merbler, Breanne Byiers, Chantel Barney, and Frank Symons
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Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with severe language and motor impairments and several potentially painful health conditions (Hagberg, 2002). Assessing pain in this population is challenging due to language impairment. Parents report uncertainty regarding their children’s pain experiences (Symons et al. 2013). Previous studies of pain expression in RTT have relied on human-scored observational coding (i.e., Barney et al., 2015), but this method is time- and resource-intensive. The purpose of the current study was to examine convergence of results from an automated facial coding system and those obtained via human observers. Video recordings of facial expressions of 5 females with RTT during a range of motion exam were scored by trained observers using a modified version of the Pain and Discomfort Scale (PADS; Bodfish et al., 2006), and processed using iMotions© (2016) Emotient software. Automated facial action unit (FAU) scores were positively correlated with the total PADS scores (r = 0.90, p = 0.037), and PADS scores were negatively correlated with automated Neutral valence scores (r = 0.90, p = 0.037), but not positive or negative valence scores. These preliminary results support the validity of automated facial expression analysis for use with individuals with RTT.

Comparing Endorsements of Self-Injurious Behavior Across Two Questionnaires for Parents of Individuals with Rett Syndrome and MeCP2 Duplication

Author(s):Stephanie S. Benson, Breanne J. Byiers, and Frank J. Symons
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Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is an issue that affects between 5-15% of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), and can have profound impacts on the quality of life for individuals and their caregivers (Didden et al., 2012; Ruef & Turnbull, 2002). Questionnaires can be useful in the measurement SIB because they are an efficient and cost-effective way of evaluating SIB for a multitude of purposes, and as such, a number of different tools have been developed. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the degree to which different measures result in the same prevalence estimates of SIB within and across groups. The purpose of this study was to compare endorsements of SIB on two measures that have been used to identify individuals with and without SIB in recently published studies, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) and the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped – II (DASH-II), to determine if endorsements of SIB would be the same or similar across measures in a sample of parents of individuals with Rett syndrome (RTT) and MECP2 duplication.

Differences in the Behavioral Phenotype of ASD in a Population Sample of Somali, White, Non-Somali Black, and Hispanic Children

Author(s):Amy Esler, PhD; Jennifer Hall-Lande, PhD; Kristin Hamre; PhD, Jen Poynter, PhD; Anab Gulaid, MPA; Libby Hallas-Muchow, MS; and Amy Hewitt, PhD
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This poster presents results from a public health surveillance project conducted in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The project was designed to determine if more Somali children (ages 7-9 years) had autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than non-Somali children. A secondary goal was to identify differences in the behavioral phenotype of ASD across racial and ethnic groups; this is the focus of the present study. A multi-step records review process was used to identify cases of ASD from educational and medical records. Data documenting DSM-IV-TR autism symptoms, intellectual ability, and related behavioral and medical concerns also were collected. Results indicated that Somali and White children were about equally likely to be identified with ASD but were both more likely to be identified with ASD than non-Somali Black and Hispanic children. Somali children with ASD were far more likely to have intellectual disability than children with ASD in all other racial and ethnic groups. Differences in DSM-IV-based symptom patterns also were found. Implications of these findings are outlined, and future directions are suggested to identify and understand potential causative factors underlying differences in intellectual functioning and behavioral patterns across groups. Recommendations are given to improve identification of ASD and reduce disparities in diagnostic practices.

Examining Sex Differences in Adaptive Behavioral Development in High Risk Infants with ASD, Social Communicative Delay, and Typical Development

Author(s):Sharer, E.A., Constantino, J.N., Botteron, K.N., Estes, A.M., Hazlett, H.C., Schultz, R.T., Piven, J., & Elison, J.T. for the IBIS Network.
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There is notable phenotypic heterogeneity among high-risk (HR) children not meeting ASD diagnostic criteria. A substantial proportion of non-ASD HR siblings manifest a profile of subthreshold ASD symptoms and/or low developmental level compared to low-risk (LR) children (Messinger et al., 2013). These subclinical traits aggregate in unaffected HR siblings (Constantino et al., 2010). More work is needed to understand heterogeneity in HR siblings and to potentially elucidate sex-specific differences, if present. Under-representation of females in research may obfuscate female protective effects or sex-specific ASD and subclinical social-communicative development. Our objective was to determine whether sex differentially influences behavioral trajectories in ASD, social-communicative concern, and typical outcomes in a sample of HR infant siblings. Experimentally controlling for proband sex, we did not observe specific sex effects on group trajectories of adaptive behavior from 6-24 months of age. Pairwise group differences revealed a gradient of attenuated adaptive behavioral development across groups. Though no sex-by-group interaction occurred, relative risk discrepancy between HR males and females is maintained in ASD but not social-communicative concern, indicating sex may protect from diagnostic, but not subclinical, levels of concern.

Higher-order repetitive behaviors in toddlers born preterm

Author(s):Sifre, R.; Wolff, J.J.; Doyle, C.; Lasch, C.; Teska, E.P.; and Elison, J.T.
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Background. Preterm birth is associated with lower IQ, impaired self-regulation, and a higher prevalence of ASD (Johnson et al., 2010). These findings add to the literature suggesting the heterogeneous etiology of ASD, and highlight the need for screening tools that capture the dimensionality/heterogeneity in contributing mechanisms and clinical outcomes of ASD. Objectives. The current study uses the Repetitive Behavior Scale for Early Childhood (RBS-EC) to compare restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in preterm and full term toddlers in a community sample of 1,670 participants. Methods and Results. Parents of toddlers between 17 and 23 months filled out the RBS-EC, an instrument designed to characterize dimensional aspects of RRBs in young children. Data from 1,670 participants were analyzed. Of these, 5.9% were born preterm (n=99). Overall, parents of preterm toddlers endorsed a greater number of behaviors (t(1666)=2.7, p=.007) and higher frequency (t(1666)=1.9, p=.05) of RRBs. Analyses of the subscales on the RBS-EC indicated that these effects were driven by group differences in Restricted and Ritual topographies. Conclusions. RBS-EC measures collected from a large community-based sample (n=1,670) indicate that infants born preterm demonstrate a greater degree of higher-order RRBs as toddlers. Future analyses will include data collected on a social-responsiveness measure – the vrRSB – in the same cohort to be analyzed to determine whether these effects are specific to RRBs, or to features of ASD more generally.

How do residential supports for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities differ across the United States?

Author(s):Eschenbacher, H.J., Anderson, L.L., Larson, S.A.
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People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (IDD) live in a variety of settings within a state and across the United States. They also receive varying amounts of supports from living in an Intermediate Care Facility (ICF, a type of institution for individuals with intellectual disabilities) to other types of non-family settings, such as group homes, and also with their family or in their own home. This poster will map data from fiscal year 2014 across the United States in terms of the percentage above and below the U.S. average number of people per 100,000 of the population in ICFs, receiving Medicaid Waivers as support for community living, living in their family home, and people on the caseload in their state.

Weekly Wage of Vocational Rehabilitation Service Recipients Across Different Demographics, Disability Types and Status, and Income Sources: A Quantile Regression Approach

Author(s):"Youngsoon Kang, MA; Kelly Nye-Lengerman, PhD; Derek Nord, PhD"
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Earnings of people in a labor market can be a useful indicator of the quality of employment, represent indicators of economic mobility, and the quality of life of people with disability. To have more complete picture of employment outcome, weekly wage was examined applying quantile regression technique. RSA-911 2014 data was used for both OLS and quantile regression analyses. Quantile regression technique allows us to analyze a set of exploratory variables at different quantiles of the weekly wage distribution in comparison with OLS estimation. Results suggest that the income disparity is much more dramatic particularly at more extreme quantile, which is the lower weekly wage distribution. Moreover, In sum, the results indicate that the quantile regression estimates of demographics, disability types/significant status, and primary sources of financial support shows different patterns of changes and consistent upward or downward trend across quantiles of the weekly wage distribution in comparison with the OLS estimates. Moreover, the results reveal that OLS estimates are either attenuated or strengthened compared to quantile regression estimates, indicating that upward or downward trends captured by quantile regression estimates show clearer picture of the extent to which disparity exists at different location of the weekly wage distribution, according to each individual’s different characteristics.

Children's Mental Health and Welfare

Delinquency Trajectories of Crossover Youth

Author(s):Minhae Cho and Wendy Haight
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The purpose of this study was to estimate delinquency trajectories for youth crossing over in early- and mid-adolescence and assess factors associated with the risk of crossing over for each group. Using an integrated data from multiple systems, a prospective, longitudinal study followed up two groups of 5,002 youth in 3rd grade and 4,108 youth in 7th grade over a 6-year period. The rate of youth’s initial involvement in juvenile justice system in this study sample was approximately 7% for early-adolescents and 16% for mid-adolescents. The average time at risk of crossing over was 4.4 years for early-adolescents and 2.9 years for mid-adolescents. Cox regression analyses indicate that male gender and youth who were suspended at school in both groups are more likely to cross over. The effects of race, emotional/behavioral disorders, and number of previous maltreatment were limited to early adolescents, while poverty, academic achievement, and out-of-home placement were significant predictors of crossing over for mid-adolescents. Findings of this study support that the effective interventions that promote positive developmental trajectories require an understanding of a developmental, ecological-systems framework that integrates insights and data from various interdisciplinary perspectives on crossover youth.

Does Early Stress and Growth Stunting Predict Obesity, Internalizing Symptoms and Early Puberty in Youth Adopted from Orphanages? 

Author(s):Brie M Reid, Bradley Miller, Lorah Dorn, Christopher Desjardins, and Megan Gunnar
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Growing evidence shows that adversity and growth stunting in childhood carry increased risk for obesity, cardiovascular disease, and poorer mental health later in life. Children adopted from orphanages (post-institutionalized; PI) provide a unique window to examine long-term impacts of growth stunting and psychosocial stress when stunted PI children are adopted into resource-rich families in early childhood. This study analysis utilizes health and behavioral data from 299 children (174 Female; 130 PI; M = 11.18 years, SD = 2.30). Compared to non-adopted peers, PI youth had lower BMI-for-age (p = 0.004), lower height-for-age (p < 0.001), and smaller body fat percentage (p < 0.001). PI youth were not in more advanced puberty than the comparison youth. 25% of PI youth were stunted at adoption. Although they were still shorter years later (p = .001), they did not exhibit greater BMI-for-age and were less likely to be in central puberty than non-stunted PI youth. Previously-stunted PI youth also exhibited fewer symptoms of anxiety (p = .035). These results raise the possibility that either the early timing of removal from adversity or the later context of rearing may buffer children from long-term impacts on BMI, pubertal timing and mental health risk.

Emotion Socialization in Middle Childhood: A Moderated Mediation Model of Attachment and Emotion Regulation

Author(s):Jingchen Zhang and Zhuo Han
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Parental emotion socialization has been found to be associated with children’s socio­-emotional development and it affect children’s psychological functioning through their influence on children’s emotion regulation. In addition, emotion socialization occurs in the larger context of the parent–child relationship. This study aims to investigate the impact of child emotion regulation and parent–child attachment on the relationship between parental emotion socialization and child behavior problems during middle childhood. A total of 150 parent–child dyads from in northeastern China participated in this study. Children ranged in age from 6 to 12 years (M=8.55, SD=1.67) and parents ranged in age from 25 to 59 (M=39.26, SD=4.03). Parents completed the Coping with Children’s Negative Emotions Scale, Emotion Regulation Checklist, and Child Behavior Checklist, and children completed the Inventory for Parent and Peer Attachment. We found that child emotion regulation/dysregulation mediated the relationship between parental emotion socialization and children’s internalizing symptom. Children’s self-­reported attachment moderated the relationship between parental emotion socialization and child emotion dysregulation. Parent-child attachment was shown to both promote the positive influence of supportive parenting practices and exacerbate the negative impact of unsupportive parenting practices.

Examining Sex Differences in Adaptive Behavioral Development in High Risk Infants with ASD, Social Communicative Delay, and Typical Development

Author(s):Sharer, E.A., Constantino, J.N., Botteron, K.N., Estes, A.M., Hazlett, H.C., Schultz, R.T., Piven, J., & Elison, J.T. for the IBIS Network.
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There is notable phenotypic heterogeneity among high-risk (HR) children not meeting ASD diagnostic criteria. A substantial proportion of non-ASD HR siblings manifest a profile of subthreshold ASD symptoms and/or low developmental level compared to low-risk (LR) children (Messinger et al., 2013). These subclinical traits aggregate in unaffected HR siblings (Constantino et al., 2010). More work is needed to understand heterogeneity in HR siblings and to potentially elucidate sex-specific differences, if present. Under-representation of females in research may obfuscate female protective effects or sex-specific ASD and subclinical social-communicative development. Our objective was to determine whether sex differentially influences behavioral trajectories in ASD, social-communicative concern, and typical outcomes in a sample of HR infant siblings. Experimentally controlling for proband sex, we did not observe specific sex effects on group trajectories of adaptive behavior from 6-24 months of age. Pairwise group differences revealed a gradient of attenuated adaptive behavioral development across groups. Though no sex-by-group interaction occurred, relative risk discrepancy between HR males and females is maintained in ASD but not social-communicative concern, indicating sex may protect from diagnostic, but not subclinical, levels of concern.

Family Problem-Solving and its Relationship to Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior

Author(s):Angela M. Holth, B.A.
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Close parent-child relationships have been found to be a protective factor against the development of delinquent behavior (Harris, Furstenberg, & Marmer, 1998). By having a close parent-child relationship, parents may positively influence their adolescent’s development by creating a context for open communication and trust, and fostering family problem-solving abilities. The current study examined the mediating effect of family problem-solving ability on the relationship between attachment and risk-taking behavior in a sample of parents and youth from a larger mentoring study (Campus Connections; N=540). Results show that attachment was negatively related to both parent and adolescent perceptions of the adolescents risk-taking behaviors, after controlling for age, gender, and race/ethnicity; and attachment was positively related to family-problem solving, after controlling for age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Family problem-solving was negatively associated with parent perceptions of adolescent risk-taking behavior, but not with youth perceptions of adolescent risk-taking behavior. Finally, family problem-solving ability significantly mediated the effect of attachment on parent perceptions of adolescent risk-taking behavior, but not youth perceptions of adolescent risk-taking behavior. Together, these findings imply that the mediating effect of family problem-solving ability on the relationship between attachment and adolescents’ risk-taking behavior depends on parent and youth perceptions of risk-taking.

Father and Fathering: A Content Analysis of Film

Author(s):Seonghee Hong and Susan K. Walker
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The aim of this study is to analyze popular movies between 1962 and 2015 to examine their illustrations of fatherhood and father-child interactions. By examining issues involving fathering, social expectations about the roles of fathers, and the traits of father-child interactions in the popular culture, a better understanding of the complexity of fatherhood will be revealed. In addition, comparing fathering and father-child interactions, as depicted across the time, will also add meaning to understand the changing role of fatherhood. Using content analysis methods, 8 movies were analyzed for portrayals of fathering quality as determined by the ecological perspective of parenting. Traits of a good father were illustrated as a good educator, a good supporter and a someone who loves their children whereas a bad father was illustrated as demonstrating a negative parenting philosophy and showing indifference and distraction. Most of the movie portrays the difficulties in being a good father from family factor, social factor, child’s character and father’s developmental history. Motivations to become a better father were also found. The results of this study can contribute to the family science field by offering representations of fatherhood in popular culture and cinema.

Just the Two of Us: How Parental Sacrifice and Religiosity Influence Couple Bonding

Author(s):Seonghee Hong, Eugene L. Hall, Natasha K. Bell, Sarah A. Burcher, and Steven M. Harris
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The purpose of this study is to analyze the association between parental sacrifice with couple bonding and religiosity. Specifically, the focus of this study is to better understand how a couple’s attitude about sacrificing for their child impacts the couple’s bonding and how this relationship is moderated by their religiosity. Parental Investment Theory and Social Exchange Theory are used as frameworks for hypothesis and analysis. The sample consisted of 1,211 parents who were currently in a relationship from the Twogether in Texas data that identified as both a parent and in a committed relationship. Results from a hierarchical multiple regression analysis show that child sacrifice and religiosity combined accounted for a significant portion of the variance in couple bonding. Couple bonding also increased significantly as child sacrifice increased for highly religious parents. However, for less religious parents, sacrificing for their child was not significantly related to their couple bonding. Implications and limitations are discussed.

MAP: Finding My Way Back: A Mentoring Program for Juvenile Offenders with Disabilities

Author(s):David Johnson, Jean Echternacht, Eileen Klemm, Jana Hallas, Xueqin Qian, Emily Clary
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Juvenile incarceration disproportionately affects youth with disabilities in the United States (Quinn, Rutherford, & Leone, 2001). Approximately, half of youth in juvenile corrections have emotional and behavioral disorder. High quality mentoring with high implementation has been shown to be effective in reducing recidivism and promoting postsecondary outcomes (Lipsey, 2009). “ Making a Map: Finding My Way Back” (MAP) is a demonstration project funded the Department of Education designed to support juvenile offenders with disabilities transitioning from a county community correctional facility into schools and their communities through comprehensive inter-agency planning and collaboration between juvenile corrections, schools, courts, and social service agencies. Primary to this intervention is the Check and Connect mentoring model, an evidence-based mentoring program that has positive effects on staying in school. In this poster, we will share qualitative data based on (1) interviews with mentors, (2) monthly reports submitted by mentors regarding the amount of time they spent delivering the intervention to students, (3) mentors’ case notes from the weekly monitoring forms, and (4) focus group data from the interagency advisory committee. These data were collected to address the intervention components implemented by mentors, challenges associated with the program implementation, and impacts of the program on students and their families perceived by mentors. NVivo qualitative data analysis software was used to assist with data management and organization.

Results of Preliminary Analysis of the University of Minnesota’s Traumatic Stress Screen for Children and Adolescents (TSSCA)

Author(s):Sophia Frank, MA; Katelyn Donisch, MA; Yanchen Zhang, M.Ed.; Chris Bray, Ph.D.
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Childhood trauma and, more broadly, adverse childhood experiences are extremely common. Sometimes, these traumatic experiences can lead to the development of trauma symptomology like distressing recurrent memories and nightmares, distress, avoidance, or physical reactions to cues that remind the child of the traumatic event, loss of interest in things they once enjoyed, persistent negative emotions, problems with concentration, problems sleeping, and reckless behavior. These symptoms can persist and worsen overtime if left untreated. Fortunately, several evidence-based treatments exist for reducing trauma symptomology in children and adolescents. One way to identify these children and provide access to treatment is through systematic screening in child serving systems. However, brief evidence-based screens to identify these children are lacking. In light of this gap, the University of Minnesota’s Traumatic Stress Screen for Children and Adolescents (TSSCA), a 5-question screen, was developed. The TSSCA provides clinicians, case workers, educators, juvenile probation officers and other staff with an easy to use tool for screening children, ages 5 to 18 years, that have or may have experienced a traumatic event and are experiencing symptomology. The present study describes the preliminary analytic procedures utilized in the development of the TSSCA.

The Reflective Interaction Observation Scale (RIOS): Understanding the Dyadic Process of Reflective Supervision

Author(s):Christopher L. Watson, Ph.D., IMH-E® (IV); Mary E. Harrison, Ph.D., LICSW; Jill E. Hennes, MSW, LICSW, IMH-E® (IV-C; Maren M. Harris, MA, LMFT, IMH-E® (IV-C)
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The Reflective Interaction Observation Scale (RIOS)© measures reflective aspects of the interactions between a supervisor and supervisee during reflective supervision/consultation (RS/C), a form of ongoing professional development and support provided to practitioners in diverse disciplines who work with families of infants and young children. In Minnesota RS/C has been supported by the Minnesota Departments of Education, Health and Human Services. Working alongside the Minnesota team, a national group of infant mental health researchers and clinicians, who are members of the Alliance for the Advancement of Infant Mental Health, contributed to the development of this first scale to define, operationalize and measure dyadic interactions in Reflective Supervision. The components of the RIOS include five Essential Elements, five Collaborative Tasks and a set of Indicators (topics of conversation and observable behaviors) that constitute the reflective process. This poster outlines the historical process of developing the scale and describes its components and the system used to code digitally recorded reflective supervision sessions.

The Work of Play: The Early Years of the Professionalization of Playground and Recreation Workers in the Progressive Era (1906-1914)

Author(s):Katlin Okamoto
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Playground workers became a central focus in efforts to increase access to play for the expanding and increasingly diverse urban populations of the early 1900’s. The recognition of the need for more opportunities for recreation led to acceptance of the playground movement as an important social reform, putting into motion a series of actions reifying the professionalization of the playground worker. This historical analysis looks at the particulars of these professionalizing activities which included the development of a professional organization, a body of knowledge, avenues for disseminating expertise through training programs, and work towards the goal of social betterment. Professionalization efforts undertaken by the playground movement are contextualized within the social reform movement of the Progressive Era by understanding the intersectionality of playground reform with the settlement movement and the burgeoning social work profession. Conceptualizations of what constitutes a profession, professionalization, and a professional are discussed in light of traditional theorists of professions as well as the relationship to the influences of the developing market economy. Findings are discussed in relation to their impact on professionalization of both the playground worker and the social worker in these formative years of both professions.

Living Better, Living Longer

Demographic, Social, and Clinical Characteristics of 672 Women Entering Five Sober Living Houses Over Nine Years

Author(s):Amy R. Krentzman, Emily Klatt, Monica Sharratt, Kristin Mannella, and Katherine T. Foster
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Individuals with substance-use disorders may benefit from residence in a sober living facility after a substance-use disorder treatment episode. Targeted improvement of sober living houses stems from understanding the characteristics and needs of those transitioning to independence from this setting. As prior research in this area has focused primarily on men, the current study sought to determine the demographic, social, and clinical characteristics of women entering sober living.
Data were collected from five sober living houses in the Upper Midwest. Variables extracted from existing records included age, employment, legal, financial, treatment and diagnostic statuses, along with length of stay.
Eligible women (n=672; aged 18-71, M=33.2, SD=11.9) entered sober living between 2007 and 2015 with stays ranging from 1 to 735 days (M=113.3, SD=106.7). Number of previous treatment episodes ranged from 0-9 (M=2.3, SD=1.5). While financial independence was common (58.7%) and predicted significantly shorter stays (105 versus 129 days, p<.01), many of the women were unemployed (61.8%) and many reported a legal issue (34.1%). 27.9% reported a comorbid physical health diagnosis and 80.3% reported a comorbid mental health diagnosis.
Overall, results suggest that women in sober living face multi-faceted challenges including high rates of unemployment and comorbid mental health issues.

Emerging Adult-Sibling Communication and Closeness

Author(s):Samantha LeBouef, Dr. Jodi Dworkin
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The purpose of this research is to better understand the relationships between communication patterns of emerging adult siblings. Despite being described as one of the most important and longest lasting relationships in an individual’s life, research on sibling relationships is lacking behind research on other familial relationships. While sibling relationships have been described across the lifespan, studies on the communication patterns between siblings are rare and with new technologies, such as smart phones and social media, it is important the role of these technologies in sibling relationships be explored. The present study aims to close these gaps in the literature. Emerging adult participants (n=233 who reported on a sibling relationship) were recruited via MTurk to complete a 20-minute online survey. Analyses revealed a significant positive correlation between communication with a sibling through social networking sites (SNS) and sibling closeness, as well as emotional, psychological, and social well-being and closeness. Male-female sibling pairs reported significantly less frequent communication than same gender pairs. A hierarchical linear regression was also computed. After controlling for demographics and internalizing, externalizing and prosocial behaviors, communication with a sibling through SNS was significantly associated with sibling closeness. Implications for family relationships will be considered.

Emerging Adults: Stressed with High Student Loan Debt

Author(s):Sun-Kyung Lee, Soyeon Shim, and Joyce Serido
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Student loan repayment is often one of the top stresses of emerging adults, as the cost of higher education has increased while the family income and employment rate declined. The big burden of loan at the beginning of their adulthood gives negative affect on their mental health such as depression, but not much research has been done to see loan effect on their well-being together with stress and repayment behavior. Therefore, the goal of the present study is to examine whether there is a mediation effect of student loan stress on young adult’s perception of well-being. Mediation analysis was conducted, with total of 371 young adults, to see the influence of their actual repayment behavior to overall well-being with perceived loan stress as a mediator. In the result, the model showed that there is complete mediation of perceived stress on their overall well-being, meaning even though the young adult have good loan repayment behavior, when they feel stressed with their student loan debt they are not happy. This study implies how young adults are stressed to pay high education loans after graduation, and increase depression in the long term with the feeling that they cannot defer their high education loan.

Evaluation of a Culturally Tailored Mobile Text Messaging Intervention to Promote the Receipt of Pap-Test and HPV Vaccine

Author(s):Hee Yun Lee, Ph.D.; Mi Hwa Lee, M.S.W; and Jaeuk Choi, M.A
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Mobile text messaging interventions have been marked as an efficacious educational tool to improve sensitive health-related topics such as cervical cancer prevention and sexually transmitted infections management (Lee et al., 2014; Lunny et al., 2014; Velthoven et al., 2013). The current study aims to evaluate its (1) feasibility of a culturally tailored mobile text messaging intervention (mScreening) and (2) to explore how the mScreening motivates participants to get a Pap test and/or HPV vaccine. Data were collected through qualitative research methods including semi-structured interviews, three focus groups, and follow-up interviews with 30 young Korean immigrant women who completed the mScreening. A thematic analysis of Braun and Clarke’s (2006) was used to analyze the data and develop the themes discussed. Concise text messaging with images or emoticons was regarded as a convenient mode of communication, leading to high levels of attention to messages and resulting in increased knowledge. With regard to motivating participants’ health behavior change, awareness on cervical cancer screening and prevention guidelines and information on health care accessibility motivated participants to get a Pap test and HPV vaccine. The findings indicate that mobile technology could be a useful medium to deliver sensitive health information among underserved immigrant population.

Examining the Relationship between Practitioner Competence and Client-Directed Recovery Goals in Enhanced-Illness Management and Recovery

Author(s):Jennifer L. Wiseman, BA; Tanya A. Line, MPS; LADC, Joshua E. Mervis, BA; Julie Rohovit, PhD; and Piper Meyer-Kalos, PhD, LP
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The high rates of individuals with comorbid serious mental illness and substance use disorder is well documented (Drake, Mueser, & Brunette, 2007). Individuals with co-occurring disorders (COD) struggle to find comprehensive and effective care and often have poor outcomes due to the complex nature of their illnesses combined with the lack of preparedness of practitioners providing treatment interventions (Mueser, Noordsy, Drake, & Fox, 2003). Enhanced Illness Management and Recovery (E-IMR), an integrated treatment intervention, was created to provide an integrated approach to the treatment of COD. E-IMR combines two evidenced based practices, Integrated Treatment for Dual Disorders and Illness Management and Recovery (IMR). A key component of E-IMR includes client-directed personal recovery goals, which allow both the client and practitioner to track progress over the course of treatment. Practitioners play an important role in treatment and can contribute to improving client outcomes, ideally by employing a collaborative approach (Mueser et al., 2003). The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between client-directed personal recovery goals and practitioner competence in providing integrated treatment for COD.

Exploring the Link Between Exercise Identity and Intervention Dosage: I-FIT (Initiating Feelings of Individual Transformation)

Author(s):Eydie N. Kramer and Daheia J. Barr-Anderson
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Background: A strong Exercise Identity (EI) has been positively related to long-term physical activity (PA) engagement as an individual seeks to fulfill the identity role of “exerciser.” The aim of this study was to determine if PA intervention, when delivered in varying dosages, may strengthen an obese adolescent’s EI and subsequent behavior choices related to PA.
Methods: Fifty overweight and obese adolescents (age=14.16±1.88 years, BMI=35.66±7.87 kg/m2, BMI percentile=97.5%±3.7%) were recruited from a behavior change summer camp, which included a PA intervention component. The participants were categorized into three separate groups, according to length of PA intervention (dosage): 3 weeks, 4-5 weeks, and 6-7 weeks. Participants completed the Anderson Exercise Identity Scale and 3 Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) at pre- and post-intervention.
Results: Upon comparison, the mean EI in the 6-7 week intervention group significantly differed from other group means and resulted in a significant increase in EI within groups (p<0.001). All intervention groups demonstrated significant increases in VPA (p<0.05); compliance with National PA Guidelines of 60+ minutes of MVPA daily; VPA performed 3 days/week.
Conclusions: Exercise Identity may be increased in obese adolescents following a PA intervention. Greater dosage of PA intervention will result in greater benefits to EI.

Family Career Identity Development Framework

Author(s):Sarah A. Burcher
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Often used as a predictor of success within family research, employment is usually examined at the individual level. The impact of family on socialization, in particular adult employment across the life course should not be minimized. Employment is imperative to economic security. The value and purpose of work is directly influenced between parent and child, motivating future behavior. The Family Career Identity Development Framework is an integrated conceptual framework that examines employment within the context of the family, yielding a more robust understanding of diverse communities. The dominant culture privileges individualistic perspectives about career choices, but in an increasingly multicultural society, recognizing how other cultural values may impact career identity development will enhance intervention programs and training curriculum. This paper will examine an identified literature gap and apply a synthesized model to expand our knowledge of families and communities transcending adversity by creating and maintaining functional lives through meaningful employment.

HPV Literacy in Korean American Women: Implications for HPV-Associated Cancer Equity

Author(s):Hee Yun Lee; Yoon Joon Choi; Young Ji Yoon; Jennifer Oh
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Background: Despite indicating one of the highest cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates, Korean American women are the least likely to have utilized cervical cancer screening across all Asian American women and non-Hispanic White women. This study aimed to investigate Korean American women’s Human Papillomavirus (HPV) literacy and examined the factors of the HPV literacy.
Methods: A sample of 243 Korean American women age 19 to 85 was recruited by a quota sampling strategy in the Metro-Atlanta area. Bivariate analysis and multiple regression analysis guided by Andersen’s Health Behavioral Model were conducted to examine the factors associated with the HPV literacy.
Results: Overall, the HPV literacy of Korean American women was revealed as moderately low to moderately high, indicating that the correct answer rates regarding HPV detection items were lower than 50%. Marital status was the only predisposing factor that had a significantly negative association with the HPV literacy, with married women displaying lower HPV literacy. Among enabling factors, education level and having insurance were significantly positively correlated, whereas having a primary physician had a significantly negative association with the HPV literacy. None of need factors was significantly associated with the HPV literacy. This study informs that there is an urgent need to educate the Korean American women to reduce HPV-associated cancer health disparity. HPV literacy education combined with HPV vaccination guidelines should primarily target Korean American women with limited health accessibility.

Practitioner Clinical Competence and Confidence in Enhanced Illness Management and Recovery (E-IMR) Delivery: Predictors of Client Outcomes?

Author(s):Sheena Potretzke, MS; Joshua E. Mervis, BA; Julie Rohovit, PhD, and Piper S. Meyer-Kalos, PhD, LP
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Recent years have seen an increased focus on development and application of evidence-based practices and workforce development in the field of addiction; however, little research has investigated successful implementation and dissemination of these practices (Sholomskas, et al., 2005). This presentation will introduce the evidence-based practice Enhanced Illness Management and Recovery (E-IMR) for treatment of co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders and investigate the relationship between practitioner clinical competence and confidence, and client outcomes following the implementation of E-IMR at six outpatient treatment agencies over the course of eighteen months. Practitioner competence was assessed by consultants from the Minnesota Center for Chemical and Mental Health (MNCAMH). Practitioner confidence was self-assessed. Client outcomes were assessed according to the Illness Management and Recovery (IMR) scale (Mueser et al., 2004). Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficients were derived between practitioner competence/confidence change scores and client outcome change scores; paired sample t-test were employed to compare pre- vs. post-total scores. This analysis was part of a larger study investigating implementation of E-IMR aimed at developing competent clinicians to provide adequate services to those with co-occurring disorders. These results will serve to inform treatment and policy with potential implications of improved overall quality of care through improved professional practice.

Sexual Identity Development among Transgender Youth

Author(s):Jory M. Catalpa, M.A; Jenifer K. McGuire, Ph.D; and Connor Callahan, B.S.
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Introduction: This study explores intersections between sexual orientation and gender identity development among transgender young adults. Our presentation aims to provide an understanding about how gender influences sexual orientation and how sexual identity might contribute to the solidification of gender identity.
Conceptual Framework: We draw on intersectionality theory to frame an analysis of complex sexual and gender identities beyond the heterosexual-homosexual and male-female binaries (Diamond & Butterworth, 2008).
Methods: Ninety transgender young adults were recruited from eight cities, in three countries. Participants reported their assigned sexes at birth were 42.2% male and 57.8% female. Participants self-identified in three gender categories; transwomen (M-F; 37%), transmen (F-M; 31%), or third gender (32%).Open coding was used to identify conceptual categories grounded in the data (Strauss & Corbin, 1990).
Results: Analyses revealed three prominent themes regarding sexual orientation labeling in the context of gender identity; 1) attraction consistency, 2) sexual attraction changes, and 3) self-labeling changes.
Discussion: Findings contribute to a burgeoning scholarship that articulates complex sexual and gender identities which intersect in diverse ways (Diamond, Pardo, & Butterworth, 2011). Results highlight how transgender young adults may experience and confirm their identities through sexual attractions and sexual orientation identification.

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