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Resource List on Restorative Justice and Islam

Ammar, N. (2001). Restorative justice in Islam: Theory and practice. In Michael L. Hadley(Ed.), The Spiritual Roots of Restorative Justice (pp. 161-180). New York: State University of New York Press.
Ammar’s article considers the theoretical underpinnings of restorative justice in both Shi’a and Sunni Islam. Ammar also offers an extensive discussion of the classifications of crime in Islam. The article also includes a thorough presentation of the vocabulary related to restorative justice in Islam, explaining many important concepts, including wali amr and fiqh.

Gellman, M. & Vuinovich, M. (2008). From sulha to salaam: Connecting local knowledge with international negotiations for lasting peace in Palestine/Israel. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 26 (2), 127-148.
This article considers the sulha process and how its techniques can be used on an international scale for the purpose of mediating conflict while simultaneously restoring honor. The article also discusses Elias Jabbour and his key involvement in promoting and using sulha.

Jabbour, E. (1993). Sulha: Palestinian traditional peacemaking process. Thomas C. Cook Jr. (Ed.). Montreat, NC: House of Hope Publications.
Jabbour’s book presents the sulha process, a restorative justice approach used both within the Palestinian community and, in a broader context, between Palestinian peacemakers and their Israeli counterparts. The book has two parts. Part I offers a detailed description of the sulha process, as told by one of its foremost participants, Elias Jabbour. Jabbour breaks down the sulha process into its component parts, making this book an excellent introduction to restorative justice in a Palestinian context. Part II of the book includes chapters by Jabbour and others which explore particular cases resolved by the sulha process and offer observations by Westerners.

Khanneh, M. & Salameh, N. (2006). Islam and Peace. (Walid Shomali, Trans.). Bethlehem: Center for Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation.
Though Khanneh and Salameh’s book does not focus specifically on restorative justice, it does include an examination of how peace and nonviolence function as important concepts in Islam. The section on nonviolence specifically addresses dialogue as an alternative response to violence.

Lowry, C. & Littlejohn, S. (2006). Dialogue and the discourse of Peacekeeping in Maluku, Indonesia. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 23 (4), 409-426.
This article is the result of a U.S. Institute of Peace-funded study. It looks at the reconciliation process in the Maluku region of Indonesia, following a four-year conflict that left six thousand residents dead and half a million displaced. The strategies used revolve around dialogue and restorative process.

Rahami, M. (2007). Islamic restorative traditions and their reflections in the post revolutionary criminal justice system of Iran. European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, 227-248.
Rahami presents a contemporary example of restorative justice operating formally in an Islamic court system. Rahami discusses those approaches used in Iran that are in accordance with restorative justice values and examines their religious justifications.

Umbreit, M., Lewis, T., & Burns, H. (2003). A community response to a 9/11 hate crime: Restorative justice through dialogue. Contemporary Justice Review, 6 (4), 383-391.
Umbreit, Lewis, and Burns offer a contemporary example of restorative justice in a Muslim context. This article examines the restorative justice-driven response of the Islamic Cultural Center in Eugene, Oregon to a hate crime committed on September 11, 2001.

Umbreit, M. & Ritter, R. (2006). Arab offenders meet Jewish victim: Restorative family dialogue in Israel. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 24 (1), 99-109.
Umbreit and Ritter describe and analyze the mediation process of a 2002 case between young Arab robbery offenders and their Jewish victim. The authors link the case to the potential for restorative justice to influence the Palestinian-Israeli conflict.

Yildirim, Y. (2009). The Medina charter: A historical case of conflict resolution. Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, 20 (4), 439-448.
Yildirim’s article studies the earliest example of restorative justice in Islamic history. Yildirim looks at the Medina Charter, a document that structured conflict resolution between Muslims and Jews in Medina during the time of the Prophet Muhammad. Yildirim examines different theories of communal power organization and concludes that the Medina Charter serves as a historical case study of restorative justice operating within a Muslim context.