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Direct discourse comment clause in final, initial, and medial positions (Ivan said, “I like chocolate ice cream.”)

This unit was written for elementary students, however, if you have older students who need to develop this structure, you can use a similar format with age-appropriate materials and activities.

As you develop this language component, use only language structures and concepts the students already know.

Tell students what they will learn and why

Introduction and Motivation

Use copies of cartoons or pages from comic books or graphic novels. The students should understand that the words in a speech balloon show what a character says and points to the character speaking, thinking, or dreaming.

Teacher demonstration/modeling

Guided practice

If your students have some usable hearing, in all guided practice activities, encourage them to notice how the words/sentences look when lipreading and how they sound. If appropriate, present lipreading and auditory discrimination activities using the words and sentences from the unit.

Show the students another picture with a speech balloon (Grandpa is throwing a ball to a young girl. Grandpa said, “Catch the ball.”).

(Leave the sentences on the board for reference.)

Independent practice

Review the work from the previous day.

Give the students a worksheet containing 6-7 direct discourse statements without punctuation. Use the 4 sentences used in Guided Practice and add 2 or 3 new ones.

Have the students complete the worksheet by adding the punctuation.

When they are finished, put up a chart with the same unmarked sentences as the worksheets.

Have individual students add the punctuation and capital letter to each sentence. The students can check and correct their work.

Show the students five pictures with speech balloons. Tell the students to write a sentence about each picture, for example, the first one would be: Mom said,“I am hungry. I will make some cookies.”

When they are finished, have one student write the first example on the board. If the students (and teacher agree) that it is correct, the other students can check and correct their first work, if necessary.

Continue in the same manner with the other sentences.

Independent application

During guided reading, give special attention to the direct discourse statements, making sure the students understand who is talking and what they are saying.

Incorporate direct discourse statements into language experience stories and other activities during the day.

Continue with units on the discourse comment clause in initial and medial position using similar steps and procedures.