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Characteristics of States' Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards in 2010-2011

Synthesis Report 85

Lynn M. Price • Jennifer R. Hodgson • Sheryl S. Lazarus • Martha L. Thurlow

September 2011

All rights reserved. Any or all portions of this document may be reproduced and distributed without prior permission, provided the source is cited as:

Price, L. M., Hodgson, J. R., Lazarus, S. S., & Thurlow, M. L. (2011). Characteristics of states' alternate assessments based on modified academic achievement standards in 2010-2011 (Synthesis Report 85). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, National Center on Educational Outcomes.


Table of Contents


Executive Summary

All students, including students with disabilities, participate in state accountability systems. Most students with disabilities participate in the regular assessment, with or without accommodations. Students with more significant cognitive disabilities participate in the alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS). A few states also have an alternate assessment based on grade-level achievement standards (AA-GLAS) for students with disabilities who need testing formats or procedures that are not included in the regular assessment and are not addressed with the use of accommodations. In 2007, federal regulations introduced another assessment option—the alternate assessment based on modified academic achievement standards (AA-MAS). Eligible students may be from any disability category, and they must be considered unlikely to achieve grade-level proficiency within the time period covered by their Individualized Education Program (IEP) and must have IEP goals based on grade-level content standards. The AA-MAS is an optional assessment.

The National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO) has been tracking the characteristics of states' AA-MAS since 2007. According to the 2009 NCEO update on test characteristics, 13 states had developed what they considered to be an AA-MAS, and three states (Texas, Kansas, and Louisiana) had received federal approval. The current report found 17 states that by the 2010-11 academic school year had developed, or were developing, what they considered to be an AA-MAS, and one additional state (North Carolina) had received federal approval.

All states' AA-MAS contained multiple-choice items with fewer states using constructed response items and performance task items. The current report also tracked test design changes between the AA-MAS and regular assessment. At least half of the states incorporated the following test design changes: additional graphics, additional white space, distractor removed, fewer items, fewer items/page, key text underlined/bolded/bulleted, larger font size, one column format, segmenting of passages, shorter passages, simplified graphics, and simplified language.

This study also tracked whether states' AA-MAS were computer-based, whether states with computer-based tests (CBTs) included tutorial and practice test opportunities, and whether states' documents included considerations for English Language Learners (ELLs) with disabilities. Six of the seventeen states had a computer-based test—four also provided tutorials and five provided practice tests. Documents from nine states suggested that the needs of ELL students participating in the AA-MAS were considered.


Overview

Federal legislation requires that all students participate in state accountability systems. For students with disabilities, a variety of options is available for participation in state assessments. Most students with disabilities participate in the regular assessment, with or without accommodations. Students with more significant cognitive disabilities may participate in the alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS). A few states also have an alternate assessment based on grade-level achievement standards (AA-GLAS) for students with disabilities who need testing formats or procedures that are not included in the regular assessment and are not addressed with the use of accommodations.

In 2007, federal regulations offered another assessment option for students with disabilities that provided states with the flexibility to develop an alternate assessment based on modified academic achievement standards (AA-MAS). Students who participate in an AA-MAS may be from any disability category, and their IEP goals must align with grade-level content standards. The regulations also require that students must have access to grade-level content but be unlikely to achieve grade-level proficiency within the time period covered by their IEP. For accountability purposes, states may count up to two percent of all students as proficient who met proficiency standards with an AA-MAS (U.S. Department of Education, 2007). States are not required to offer this assessment option.

The National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO) has annually tracked and analyzed the characteristics of states' AA-MAS since 2007 (Hodgson, Lazarus, & Thurlow, 2010; Albus, Lazarus, Thurlow, & Cormier, 2009; Lazarus, Thurlow, Christensen, & Cormier, 2007). This report updates Hodgson et al. A companion report on states' participation guidelines for the AA-MAS in 2010 (Lazarus, Hodgson, Price, & Thurlow, 2011) is available at the NCEO Web site.

Need to Update and Analyze

During the 2009-2010 school year, NCEO compiled and analyzed information about the test characteristics of states' AA-MAS and found that 13 states had either implemented or were developing a test that the states considered to be an AA-MAS. Three states in the 2009 report (Kansas, Louisiana, and Texas) had successfully completed the U.S. Department of Education's peer review process for their AA-MAS (Hodgson et al., 2010). As of June 2011, 17 states had either implemented or were developing an AA-MAS, and one additional state (North Carolina) had received federal approval after successfully completing the federal peer review process.

As a fairly new assessment option, the characteristics of states' AA-MAS continue to change frequently. With states continuing to revise their tests and a few more states developing an AA-MAS option, identifying and analyzing these changes is important to help states make informed decisions. Similar to the previous report (Hodgson et al., 2010), the current report continued to track characteristics of states' AA-MAS as well as key differences across states regarding considerations for computer-based tests (CBTs) and English Language Leaners (ELLs) with disabilities. We wanted to learn whether the characteristics of this assessment were continuing to change. The specific research questions we sought to answer were:

  1. During the 2010-2011 school year, which states had an assessment they considered to be an AA-MAS?
  2. What were the characteristics of these assessments and how had they changed since the 2009-2010 school year?
  3. Which states had computer-based tests for their AA-MAS and how had they changed since the 2009-2010 school year?
  4. WWhich states had publicly posted considerations for ELL students with disabilities participating in the AA-MAS, and how had they changed since the 2009-2010 school year?

Process Used to Find Information about States' AA-MAS

In January 2011, state department of education Web sites were searched to identify states that had an AA-MAS or an AA-MAS in development. Seventeen states were identified. State documents related to AA-MAS characteristics were downloaded for each state. State documents downloaded included fact sheets, brochures, guides, test administration manuals, newsletters, test or item specifications, and PowerPoint presentations. Item samplers or practice tests were also downloaded to compare items from states' AA-MAS with items from the regular assessments. The documents used in this analysis are listed in Appendix A.

The current report is an annual update. We surveyed AA-MAS test characteristics for 2010-2011. In the 2009-2010 NCEO update on AA-MAS test characteristics (Hodgson et al., 2010), researchers collected information during February 2010. Similarly, in the current annual update of the report, we collected information from January 2011 to March 2011, and refer to the 2010-2011 school year throughout the report.

All named test design changes in the previous report were tracked and included in this report if any states made the change this year. Test design changes are included by name in this report when they are mentioned in the materials of at least three states or if they were tracked in the previous report. If the change was not common to at least three states or tracked in the previous report, it was included in the other category. If a new design change is tracked in the current report by name, information in the previous report pertaining to these changes was included. Many of these changes were listed in the previous NCEO report in the other category. Detailed descriptions about these "other" changes were found in the appendix tables of Hodgson et al. (2010) of the previous report.

This year we also expanded the description of one design change tracked in previous reports (key text underlined/bolded) to include changes related to bulleting text (key text underlined/bolded/bulleted). This change was made because it better reflects the way this change is included in many state documents.

Hodgson et al. (2010) tracked and provided descriptions related to online or computer-based testing for states' AA-MAS in 2009-2010. This year we also tracked the availability of online tutorials and practice tests.

In April 2011, state profiles were prepared and sent to state directors of assessment via e-mail. Each profile contained the specific AA-MAS information that was collected for a state. States were asked to verify the information within two weeks. States were permitted to revise their profiles if inaccurate information was found, provided we could confirm their changes with posted state information. States that had not responded within two weeks were sent a follow-up e-mail. Fourteen out of the seventeen states responded. States confirmed the accuracy of the information, suggested one document over another, or filled in other information. If a state did not respond to the requests, we assumed the data were correct and considered it verified. The verified information is summarized in this report.


Results

Thirteen states (California, Connecticut, Indiana, Kansas, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Tennessee, and Texas) were identified as having publicly available information on test characteristics for an AA-MAS in the previous report for the 2009-2010 school year—though there was little publicly available information for the assessment that Indiana was developing. Therefore the analysis results presented in the 2009-2010 report included data from only 12 states (Hodgson et al., 2010). Four additional states (Georgia, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, and Virginia) were identified for the current report. Table 1 provides the state, the name of the state's AA-MAS, and the content areas and grades for this assessment option.

Table 1. AA-MAS Name, Content Area, and Grade Described by State as of March 2011

State

Assessment Name

Content Areas/Grades

California

California Modified Assessment (CMA)

Math (3-7); English Language Arts (3-11); Writing (4, 7); Science (5, 8); Algebra I (7-111); Geometry (8-111); Life Science (10)

Connecticut

Connecticut Mastery Test Modified Assessment System (CMT MAS) and Connecticut Academic Performance Test Modified Assessment System (CAPT MAS)

Math and Reading (3-8, 102)

 

 

Georgia

Georgia Criterion-Referenced Competency Tests—Modified (CRCT-M)

Math and Reading (3-8); English Language Arts (3-8)

Indiana

Indiana Modified Achievement Standards Test (IMAST)

Math and English Language Arts (3-8); Science (4, 6); Social Studies (5, 7)

Kansas3

Kansas Assessment of Modified Measures (KAMM)

Math and Reading (3-8, HS); Writing (5, 8, HS); Science (4, 7) History-Government (9, 11)

Louisiana

Louisiana Educational Assessment Program (LEAP) Alternate Assessment, Level 2

Math and English Language Arts (4-8, 10-11); Science (4, 8, 11); Social Studies (4, 8, 11)

Maryland

Maryland Modified High School Assessment (Mod-HSA); Maryland Modified School Assessment (Mod-MSA)

Math and Reading (3-8); Algebra, Biology, English, and Government (HS)

Michigan

Michigan Educational Assessment Program (MEAP) Access

Math and Reading (3-8); Writing (4, 7)

Minnesota

Minnesota Comprehensive Assessment (MCA) Modified

Math and Reading (5-8, 10)

North Carolina

NCEXTEND2 Alternate Assessment for End-of-Grade (EOG)

Math and Reading (3-8); Science (5, 8)

North Dakota

North Dakota Alternate Assessment 2 (NDAA2)

Math and Reading/Language Arts (3-8, 11); Science (4, 8, 11)

Ohio

Ohio's Alternate Assessment based on Modified Achievement Standards (AA-MAS)

Math and Reading (5-8, 10)

Oklahoma

Oklahoma Modified Alternate Assessment Program (OMAAP)

Math and Reading (3-8); Science (5, 8); End-of-Instruction Tests, High School (Algebra I, Biology I, English II, and U.S. History)

Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania System of School Assessment-Modified (PSSA-M)

Math and Reading (4-8, 11); Science (8, 11)

Tennessee

Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP) Modified Academic Achievement Standards (MAAS)

Math and Reading/Language Arts (3-8); Science (3-8); Social Studies (3-8)

Texas

Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills Modified (TAKS-M)

Math (3-11); Reading (3-9); English Language Arts (10-11); Writing (4, 7) Science (5, 8, 10-11); Social Studies (8, 10, 11)

Virginia

Virginia Modified Achievement Standards Test (VMAST)

Math and Reading (3-8); Algebra 1 (End-of-Course)

1Students will complete the assessment during one of the school years mentioned.
2CAPT MAS is available as a live test for identified grade 10 students and as a retest for individual students in grade 11 and 12.
3Kansas offers KAMM Opportunity to Learn (OTL) assessments for grades 9-12 in math, reading, science, writing, and history-government. The OTL assessments are designed to give students the opportunity to learn the content standards prior to participation in the KAMM. According to the Kansas Assessment Examiner's Manual this assessment option "provides High Schools with flexibility in determining when to assess students."

All states in the current report assessed students in reading and mathematics. Some states also offered AA-MAS tests for science, social studies, or other content areas. The majority of states offered the AA-MAS in grades 3-8. Some states offered the test at the high school level or at fewer grade levels. Most states had operational assessments across all content areas. Figure 1 shows 14 states had operational assessments across all content areas, no states had operational assessments in some content areas and developing in others, and three states were still developing their assessment across all content areas. See Table B1 in Appendix B for details.

Figure 1. Number of States with an Operational AA-MAS as of January 2011

Figure 1 Bar Chart 

Different types of questions were included on states' AA-MAS. Figure 2 presents the number of states across 2009-2010 (n=12) and 2010-2011 (n=17) with information on AA-MAS question characteristics. Multiple choice, constructed response, performance tasks, and writing prompts were identified as different types of questions used by states. States were not counted more than once in any category. For example, if a state used multiple choice questions and performance tasks in one content area, the state would be counted in both categories. However, a state with performance tasks in both reading and mathematics would be counted once in that category. See Table B2 in Appendix B for more details.

The assessments of all states with an AA-MAS included multiple choice items in both 2010-11 and 2009-2010. Overall, the percentage of states using constructed response items, writing prompts, and performance tasks on the AA-MAS decreased. Three of the seventeen states (18%) in 2010-2011 used constructed response items compared to four out of twelve states (33%) in 2009-2010. The number of states using writing prompts in 2010-2011 was five of seventeen states (29%) in comparison to five out of twelve states (42%) in 2009-2010. Only one state used performance tasks in both years.

Figure 2. Number of States by Question Characteristic across Study Years

Figure 2 Bar Chart 

Assessment Design Changes

Figure 3 compares states' AA-MAS test design changes from 2009-2010 to 2010-2011. The previous NCEO report tracked 16 design changes by name. As described in the Process section, this report tracks by name any design changes mentioned by three or more states, as well as all design changes included in the previous report. Using this criterion, six additional design changes were tracked by name in this report (em>add hint/thought boxes, additional white space, eliminate grid-in items, embedded formulas/conversions, limit steps in multi-step problems, and simplified numbers).

States' design changes for the AA-MAS varied across study years and across states (see Figure 3). In the current study, states were most likely to use simplified language (n = 16). Distractor removed, fewer items, key text underlined/bolded/bulleted, and shorter passages were also popular test design changes (n = 14). The largest increase was observed for states using simplified language, increasing to 16 out of 17 states (94%) in 2010-2011 from 7 out of 12 states (58%) states in 2009-2010. Another large increase was additional white space, which increased to 10 out of 17 states (59%) in 2010-2011 from 3 out of 12 states (25%) in 2009-2010. Simplified numbers and limit steps in multi-step problems also increased considerably. Both of the design changes increased to eight out of seventeen states (47%) in this report from two out of twelve states (17%) in the previous one. Small decreases from 2009-2010 to 2010-2011 were found in percentages of states using different typeface and calculator design changes.

States sometimes provided detailed descriptions about certain test design changes. AA-MAS test design change specifications are discussed in more detail here for each design change. Additional information and the detailed specifications are presented in Tables B3 and B4 in Appendix B.

Figure 3. States' Assessment Design Changes for the AA-MAS across Study Years

Figure 3 Bar Chart 

Add Hint/Thought Boxes. Documents from five states (Georgia, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Virginia) indicated that hint or thought boxes were used on the AA-MAS. States generally indicated that a hint or thought box was used to provide helpful reminders to ensure understanding of a question. For example, Pennsylvania added "helpful hints or thought boxes to provide further definition of words and terminology and/or support the text or emphasize main ideas." Georgia indicated that "these hints are designed to serve as helpful reminders, providing information to aid students in understanding what the question is asking."

Additional Graphics. Eleven states (California, Indiana, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia) included additional graphics on their AA-MAS. Many of the states indicated graphics were added but did not provide additional detail. A few states provided information about when or why additional graphics were added. For example, both Oklahoma and Texas shared, "provide additional graphics to support text, emphasize ideas, and facilitate comprehension."

Additional White Space. Ten states (California, Connecticut, Georgia, Indiana, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Texas) had an AA-MAS that used additional white space. Some states provided specific descriptions of when white space was added. Tennessee indicated additional white space was added "between paragraphs of passages" and "between numbers of sequences or graphics." Georgia shared that "the line spacing between items was increased." Some states specifically stated they included additional white space in relation to fewer items per page. For example, Texas stated, "more white space due to fewer items per page."

Breaks as Needed. Three states (Michigan, North Dakota, and Ohio) included breaks as needed as a design change on their AA-MAS. Michigan and North Dakota provided general information that indicated that students may take breaks as needed. For example, North Dakota stated, "Students should be provided with comfortable workstations, a relaxed testing schedule, frequent breaks, and the presence of a competent test administrator," whereas Ohio provided detailed directions for test administrators to follow when providing a break to all students at once and restroom breaks for individual students—and indicated that breaks were allowed "if district policy allows":

Breaks are strongly encouraged during each testing session, if district policy allows breaks. TAs should tell students before the assessment what they may do during the breaks. TAs should follow the directions below when providing a break: Before the test begins, let students know when the break will occur. Have a watch or a clock available to time the length of the break. Students will remain in the assessment room. No talking will be allowed during the break. Students should be encouraged to stand for a stretch break at their desks. No additional materials should be taken out during a break. Only the student test booklet (closed and face down) and pencil should be on the desk. When the entire group has had a break, students will resume the assessment.

Calculator. Two states (Indiana and Louisiana) integrated calculators into AA-MAS test design. Both states permitted the use of a calculator on all sessions of the mathematics content area of the AA-MAS; students taking the general assessment used a calculator only on some sessions of the mathematics test. Louisiana stated, "Calculator use is permitted on all sessions," and "It is recommended that a calculator be made available to each student for instructional and assessment purposes."

Different Typeface. Six states (California, Connecticut, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Texas) indicated the use of a different typeface as a design change on the AA-MAS test. Four of the states provided information about what typeface was used for the AA-MAS. Connecticut, Oklahoma, and Texas indicated they used Verdana font and California used Helvetica font.

Distractor Removed. Fourteen states (California, Connecticut, Indiana, Kansas, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia) removed distractors as a test design change on the AA-MAS. Some states described removing distractors in general terms and a few states provided more specific descriptions of how distractors were removed. For example, North Carolina and Ohio broadly stated that three answer choices were used and Oklahoma stated, "provide only three answer options instead of four," and specifically mentioned that the English II assessment was designed to "eliminate answer choices that give students the option of making no changes to the item."

Eliminate Grid-in Items. Four states (Connecticut, Indiana, Minnesota, and Texas) eliminated grid-in items from the mathematics content area as a test design change on the AA-MAS. Generally, grid-in items referred to items that students completed by filling in their produced answer into a response grid rather than selecting an answer from choices. To complete grid-in items, students had an area to write their response followed by needing to fill in the appropriate circles under each number they wrote in the top row. States referred to these as grid-in items, gridded-response items, or griddable items. Moreover, the four states indicated that this type of item was deleted from their AA-MAS, none were included on the AA-MAS, or the items were converted into multiple choice questions. For example, Connecticut stated, "all grid-in items converted to multiple choice items," while Texas indicated, "delete griddable items."

Embedded Formulas/Conversions. Nine states (Connecticut, Georgia, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Virginia) included appropriate embedded formulas and conversions as a test design change on the AA-MAS. Embedded formulas and conversions were typically used for math and science tests. The specifications differed across states. Most states indicated where embedded formulas or conversions should be added. For example, Connecticut said "formulas and conversions embedded in test items," and Texas indicated, "provide appropriate formula or conversion near the item" for its math and science tests. Pennsylvania included a reason why the state embedded formulas and conversions for the math AA-MAS: "A formula hint and a conversion hint have been added below the stem to guide the students."

Fewer Items. Fourteen states (California, Georgia, Indiana, Kansas, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Texas) had fewer items as a design change for the AA-MAS. Some of the states specified what type of items were deleted (e.g., gridded-response items or constructed-response items). Both Texas and Oklahoma stated that negative items and "items that cannot be modified based on guidelines" should be deleted. Minnesota discussed the proportion of items in each content area: "The number of operational items within a form are reduced from that used by MCA-III while maintaining the proportion of content coverage across strands and standards."

Fewer Items/Page. Twelve states (California, Connecticut, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Texas) had fewer items per page. Most of the states had similar specifications and limited details for this design change. For example, North Dakota offered its AA-MAS as a computer-based assessment and indicated that "each question is presented on the full computer screen."

Fewer Passages. Six states (Georgia, Kansas, Maryland, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, and Texas) had fewer passages for the AA-MAS than for the regular test. Five of the states indicated the use of fewer passages but provided limited details in publicly available documents. Kansas provided more information about how the design change was used for the reading content area tests:

There are fewer passages to read. At grades 3 and 4 there are two narrative and two expository passages. At grades 5, 6, and 7 there are two narrative, two expository, and one technical passage. At grades 8 and HS there are two narratives, two expository, one technical passage, and one persuasive passage.

Graphic Organizers. Six states (Connecticut, Georgia, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Virginia) indicated that graphic organizers were used on the AA-MAS. The specifications across states differed from more general descriptions to very specific descriptions that included examples of what graphics organizers entailed. For example, Ohio indicated, "provide a graphical structure to help students organize their thoughts," and Georgia stated that "graphic organizers (visual aids that help) accompany some items."

Two states (Tennessee and Pennsylvania) provided more specific descriptions with examples. Tennessee stated, "graphic organizers to aid conceptual understanding or focus," and "provide a scaffold: graphic organizers (e.g., timeline for organizing chronology) and table, graph, chart, or visual to enhance conceptual understanding (e.g., Venn diagram to compare and contrast)." Pennsylvania stated, "provide a scaffold: Table or map to enhance comprehension (e.g., timeline for organizing chronology)."

Key Text Underlined/Bolded/Bulleted. Fourteen states (Connecticut, Georgia, Indiana, Kansas, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia) indicated key text was underlined, bolded, and bulleted in their AA-MAS. States had varying levels of details to describe the design change, with some states providing specific descriptions on when or why the design change was used. Moreover, some states underlined, bolded, and bulleted key text while other states used one or two of the options. For example, Indiana indicated, "bold for key or essential words" and "bullet points to organize and highlight information." Ohio stated that for the math content area: "Important elements of the problem are bolded or underlined," and "This will facilitate structured recall of the content passage by AA-MAS students."

Larger Font Size. Twelve states (California, Connecticut, Georgia, Indiana, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Texas) indicated that a larger font size was used on their AA-MAS. Most states provided little detail about this design change—and generally just stated that larger font sizes were used or that the text was enlarged.

Limit Steps in Multi-step Problems. Eight states (Georgia, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Virginia) had an AA-MAS that chose to limit the steps in multi-step problems. Three states (Indiana, Oklahoma, and Texas) specified this design change for science and math tests. Texas indicated that the change was used for math and science tests and stated, "limit the number of steps and/or operations in multi-step problems." Similarly, Oklahoma indicated that the change was used for math, algebra I, science, and biology I tests and stated, "limit the number of steps and/or expectations in multi-step problems."

Two of the states (Ohio and Pennsylvania) indicated that this design change was used as a scaffold for students and did not specify what content areas it could be used on. For example, Ohio indicated, "Use scaffolding: Break multi-step items into individual steps, each with questions," and "Additional items break up complex questions into a series of simpler steps to reduce the planning load."

One Column Format. Nine states (California, Connecticut, Georgia, Minnesota, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, and Texas) indicated one column format was used on the AA-MAS. Typically states used one column format as opposed to a two column format. For example, Connecticut stated for its reading test, "elimination of double-column format for the articles." A few other states also provided limited details. Georgia shared "items are placed in a single-column" and Minnesota stated "use a single column when appropriate." Many states did not provide specific details surrounding the use of one column formats.

Segmenting of Passages. Nine states (Georgia, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia) used segmented passages on their AA-MAS. Many of the states specified reading passages were segmented with the relevant items placed underneath the smaller segments. For example, Pennsylvania stated, "separate reading passages into chunks, followed by related items." Ohio stated that it embedded "reading passages within the passages so that students answer content-relevant questions immediately after reading a paragraph about the content."

Shorter Passages. Fourteen states (California, Georgia, Indiana, Kansas, Louisiana, Maryland, Minnesota, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia) shortened passages on the AA-MAS. Some states mentioned that passages were shortened on specific tests. Shortening passages was most commonly used on reading tests, but was also specified for mathematics, science, social studies, or writing in some states. For example, Indiana specified for English and language arts, "reduce length of passage/test," and specified for mathematics, science, and social studies, "reducing the length of text."

Some states did not specify a content area but only stated in general that the reading amount was reduced. For example, North Carolina specified, "shorter reading selections (mostly one page)," and Virginia said, "Some of the sentences have been removed from reading passages."

Three states (Georgia, Kansas, and Texas) provided detail about what information may be eliminated from passages. Texas specified for the reading test, "Delete extraneous information that does not affect development of the selection or any context related to the tested items." Kansas also included information related to working memory in its description for the reading assessment:

Reduce sentence, paragraph, and passage length to minimize demands on working memory. Word count and readability of KAMM passages are reduced to decrease the working memory demands on students. For technical texts, sufficient information and context is presented to help students respond to questions, but the text in general is less complicated and detailed, and presents little, if any, extraneous information.

Simplified Graphics. Ten states (Connecticut, Georgia, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia) had an AA-MAS that simplified graphics as a test design change. Some of the states provided detailed information about how and why graphics were simplified. For example, Ohio stated "graphics may have been enlarged or simplified in order to increase readability" on its math AA-MAS. A few of the states identified what type of graphic was simplified. For example, Tennessee indicated "charts, graphs, and tables are simplified." Two of the states (Oklahoma and Texas) both specified that the visual complexity of graphics was simplified.

Simplified Language. Sixteen states (Connecticut, Georgia, Indiana, Kansas, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia) indicated simplified language was used on the AA-MAS. All of the states provided specifications about the design change. Most commonly, states simplified language by eliminating extraneous information, reducing the reading load, rewording complex sentences, simplifying sentence structure, or changing passive voice to active voice.

Some of the states provided comprehensive, diverse descriptions of how language was simplified on their tests. A few of the states also provided specific description on how language was simplified for each content area. For example, Oklahoma provided a description of how simplified language was used across all content areas:

Minimize the use of pronouns and prepositional phrases; Avoid the use of multiple-meaning words and words that can function as more than one part of speech; Reduce reading load of stem, stimuli, and answer options when possible; Delete extraneous information including irrelevant material and unnecessary words in items or graphics.

Oklahoma then provided more specific descriptions for each of the content areas of its AA-MAS. For example, for science and biology content areas Oklahoma stated, "simplify complex sentence structure and vocabulary in item and answer choices without eliminating science vocabulary."

Simplified Numbers. Eight states (Connecticut, Georgia, Indiana, Michigan, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Virginia) documented that numbers were simplified for math, science, and social studies content areas of the AA-MAS. Five states provided specifications about the design change. Simplifying numbers often was referred to as reducing the number of variables, simplifying digits, or using less complex numbers. For example, both Oklahoma and Texas stated, "reduce the number of variables and simplify digits in item when appropriate" for their science and math content areas. Michigan stated, "inclusion of less complex numbers when appropriate," and Georgia stated, "the text and numbers were simplified to reduce cognitive load."

Computer-based Tests

Several states incorporated technology into their AA-MAS. As shown in Figure 4, six of seventeen states in 2010-2011 and four of twelve states in 2009-2010 offered computer-based tests for one or more content areas for their AA-MAS. In 2010-2011, most of these states (n = 5) had developed CBTs in both reading and mathematics content areas, and three of the states also had CBTs in science and social studies. Kansas offered the AA-MAS in all content areas—reading, writing, math, science, and social studies—via computer-based testing. One state (Minnesota) offered a computer-based test in only one content area (mathematics). For more information about state CBT general descriptions and specifications, see Tables B5, B6, and B7 in Appendix B. /p>

Figure 4. State's Computer-based Tests for the Modified Assessment by Content Area

Figure 4 Bar Chart 

Similar to the previous report that tracked CBTs, states that offered CBTs for their AA-MAS provided varying amounts of information and details regarding the computer-based assessment option in publicly available state documents. All of the states provided information about what content areas had CBTs. Most of the states provided information about accommodations for students taking the AA-MAS via CBTs. For example, Virginia shared:

If a student's Individualized Education Plan (IEP) includes accommodations, those accommodations should be provided during the VMAST practice test, if possible. If a student's accommodation includes an audio assessment, the practice test should be read aloud to the student. Audio copies of these assessments are not available at this time.

A few states provided information regarding test setting and test administration schedule for their CBTs. Connecticut, Minnesota and North Dakota each provided detailed specifications of test settings. Connecticut stated that "students assessed with the CMT MAS must be tested in a separate setting from students assessed with the standard CMT." North Dakota indicated that the NDAA2 needs to be taken "on a computer in a quiet, secure area free of distractions, with direct supervision." Minnesota stated that the "design of the Minnesota MCA and MCA-Modified allows students in the same physical setting to take either test and provides seamless administration for the student and teacher—regardless of which test the student is taking."

Connecticut, Maryland, and Minnesota had different procedures for their AA-MAS test administration schedules. For example, Connecticut indicated that "within a school, each test session on the CMT MAS must be administered on the same schedule to students in the same grade," and that "there is no requirement that CMT MAS test sessions be administered on the same schedule as the standard CMT for mathematics or reading." Maryland stated that ‘online tests are administered according to a flexible administration schedule set by each LEA within the overall State-mandated HSA testing window." Minnesota indicated that "scheduling for the online Mathematics MCA and MCA-Modified may be arranged around computer availability, allowing an entire class of students to pause their administration at different points in the assessment and returning to complete it at a later time."

Some of the states also provided students with tutorials and practice tests for the AA-MAS CBTs. Figure 5 shows the number of states out of the total of six that offered CBTs in 2010-2011 that have online tutorials and practice tests available. Kansas, Maryland, and Minnesota provided tutorials to students. One state (North Dakota) had a tutorial aimed specifically at teachers rather than students, and a few states also suggested teachers review the student tutorials or practice tests to familiarize themselves with the test format.

Connecticut, Kansas, Maryland, Minnesota, and Virginia offered practice tests for students to learn the computer platform and accessibility features of the CBTs. The type of practice tests available varied by state. For example, Connecticut offered practice tests for each content area but they were not grade specific. Kansas and Minnesota both offered practice test items for each content area and grade level. Minnesota specified for each grade for the mathematics assessment that, "The purpose of the item samplers is to familiarize students with the online MCA-Modified test format."

Figure 5. Online Tutorials and Practice Tests for States' Computer-based Tests for the AA-MAS in 2011

Figure 5 Bar Chart 

English Language Learners

In the previous report, documents from six states (California, Connecticut, Louisiana, Michigan, North Carolina, and Texas) suggested the needs of ELLs participating in the AA-MAS were considered. In the current report, nine states (California, Connecticut, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Texas) provided information related to ELLs participating in the AA-MAS. /p>

Similar to the previous report, Texas continued to provide Linguistically Accommodated Testing (LAT) administrations of the TAKS-M for eligible ELLs. In the current report, Pennsylvania offered a Spanish version of the PSSA-M for mathematics and it was available as an accommodation for some ELLs. Pennsylvania specified:

A Spanish version of each Mathematics PSSA, PSSA-M, Science PSSA, Science PSSA-M, Algebra, and Biology Keystone paper/pencil exams is available for students who have been enrolled in schools in the United States for fewer than three years…It is recommended that Spanish language students be literate in their native language for this accommodation to be beneficial. However, the Spanish-language version of the assessment may be read aloud to an eligible ELL student who can benefit from receiving the assessment in Spanish (for example, an ELL with prior education in Spanish who is also dyslexic).

In the 2009-2010 report, three states (Louisiana, Michigan, and Texas) specified which accommodations an English language learner participating in an AA-MAS may be eligible to use. In 2010-2011, seven states (California, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, and Texas) included considerations about accommodations for ELLs participating in this assessment option. Table B8 in Appendix B provides details (see Lazarus, Cormier, Crone, & Thurlow, 2010, for general information about AA-MAS accommodations policies).


Discussion

In the 2010-2011 school year, 17 states had an assessment they considered to be an AA-MAS. Fourteen states had an operational assessment across all content areas, while three states were in the process of developing their assessment. Four states (Kansas, Louisiana, North Carolina, and Texas) had completed the U.S. Department of Education's Peer Review process. Other key findings include:

  • Similar to 2009-2010, all states included multiple choice items in at least one content area of the AA-MAS. The number (and percentage) of states using constructed response items decreased from four states in 2009-2010 (33%) to three states in 2010-2011 (18%). In both years only one state used performance tasks. The number of states with writing prompts remained the same as the previous report (n = 5), but the percentage of states with prompts decreased to 29% from 42%.
  • At least half of the states in the current report incorporated the following test design features into the AA-MAS: additional graphics, additional white space, distractor removed, embedded formulas/conversions, fewer items, fewer items/page, key text underlined/bolded/bulleted, larger font size, one column format, segmenting of passages, shorter passages, simplified graphics, and simplified language.
  • The largest increase of a tracked test design feature was observed for simplified language (94% in 2010-2011 from 58% in 2009-2010).
  • Six states had developed computer-based tests (CBTs) for at least one content area of the AA-MAS in 2010-2011 in comparison to four states in 2009-2010. All of the six states had developed a mathematics CBT and five states also had a reading CBT. One state (Kansas) offered CBTs across all of its available content areas, including reading, writing, math, science, and social studies.
  • Nine states addressed considerations for ELLs with disabilities on the AA-MAS.

Some of the design changes made by states on their AA-MAS are features that are very similar to characteristics that would be found on any test that was developed using principles of universal design (Thompson, Johnstone, Anderson, & Miller, 2005; Thompson, Johnstone, & Thurlow, 2002). The results suggest that some states approached the design changes for their AA-MAS from a universal design perspective. For example, one state (Minnesota) specifically stated in developing test items that the items were written using principles of universal design and test developers were directed to apply language simplification techniques (e.g., use high-frequency, familiar vocabulary, active voice, and avoid negation), and page and item layout techniques (e.g., use a single column format, and simple, uncluttered graphics).

Specifications for test design changes continued to vary by state in the current report in comparison to the 2009-2010 report. Some states provided more specific details for a design change while other states provided more general information. For some design changes, different states implemented the change in very different ways. For example, states that simplified the language of their AA-MAS often did so in unique ways. Some states opted to eliminate extraneous information, reduce the reading load, reword complex sentences, simplify sentence structure, or change passive voice to active voice, and other states broadly stated language, vocabulary, or text was simplified.

As states continue to develop and revise their AA-MAS, they may want to consider more specifically defining how a design feature is used and provide examples of specific design changes. For example, a few states provided item samplers for each grade and content area that specifically went over what design changes and modifications were made to each question. One state (Pennsylvania) indicated that their item samplers "may be used as examples for creating assessment items at the classroom level." Providing materials such as item samplers may make it easier for educators to provide opportunities for students who take the AA-MAS to gain experience in using the test design changes well before test day. This follows good practices in connecting instruction with accountability assessments (Pugalee & Rickelman, 2010).

When we conducted this analysis we found that states provided much more detailed information regarding CBTs than in past years. For example, a few states addressed issues regarding test setting and test administration schedules. This year most states with computer-based AA-MAS now had tutorials and practice items as well as instructions about how these materials should be looked at prior to test day so that students can learn how to navigate the test platform. These tutorials and practice items can be very helpful. According to Thurlow, Lazarus, Albus, and Hodgson (2010), providing training opportunities for teachers and students to learn the computer-based test platform is an important part of ensuring that students benefit from the accessibility features and test design characteristics of the test.

It is anticipated that federal regulations and policies regarding the AA-MAS may change in the future. Also, many states are members of the Race-to-the-Top Assessment Consortia and are in the process of developing new assessment systems based on common-core standards. NCEO will continue to track states as they make changes regarding the AA-MAS and continue to seek how to best assess low-performing students with disabilities. 


References

Albus, D., Lazarus, S. S., Thurlow, M. L., & Cormier, D. (2009). Characteristics of states' alternate assessments based on modified academic achievement standards in 2008 (Synthesis Report 72). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, National Center on Educational Outcomes.

Hodgson, J. R., Lazarus, S. S., & Thurlow, M. L. (2010). Characteristics of states' alternate assessments based on modified academic achievement standards in 2009-2010 (Synthesis Report 80). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, National Center on Educational Outcomes.

Lazarus, S. S., Cormier, D. C., Crone, M., & Thurlow, M. L. (2010). States' accommodations policies for alternate assessments based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS) in 2008 (Synthesis Report 74). Minneapolis MN: University of Minnesota, National Center on Educational Outcomes.

Lazarus, S. S., Hodgson, J., Price, L. M., & Thurlow, M. L. (2011). States' participation guidelines for the alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS) in 2010 (Synthesis Report 82). Minneapolis MN: University of Minnesota, National Center on Educational Outcomes.

Lazarus, S. S., Thurlow, M. L., Christensen, L., & Cormier, D. (2007). States' alternate assessments based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS) in 2007 (Synthesis Report 67). Minneapolis MN: University of Minnesota, National Center on Educational Outcomes.

Pugalee, D. K., & Rickelman, R. J. (2010). Understanding the content: A focus on reading and mathematics. In M. Perie (Ed.), Teaching and assessing low-achieving students with disabilities: A guide to alternate assessments based on modified achievement standards (pp. 113-148). Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing.
Thompson, S. J., Johnstone, C. J., Anderson, M. E., & Miller, N. A. (2005). Considerations for the development and review of universally designed assessments (Technical Report 42). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, National Center on Educational Outcomes.

Thompson, S., Johnstone, C. J., & Thurlow, M. L. (2002). Universal design applied to large scale assessments (Synthesis Report 44). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, National Center on Educational Outcomes.

Thurlow, M., Lazarus, S. S., Albus, D., & Hodgson, J. (2010). Computer-based testing: Practices and considerations (Synthesis Report 78). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, National Center on Educational Outcomes.

U.S. Department of Education (2007, April 9). Final Rule 34 CFR Parts 200 and 300: Title I-Improving the Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged; Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Federal Register. 72(67), Washington DC: Author. Retrieved from http://cehd.umn.edu/NCEO/2percentReg/FederalRegApril9TwoPercent.pdf


Appendix A

State Documents and Presentations Used in the Analysis of States' AA-MAS

California

California Department of Education. (2010). 2011 standardized testing and reporting item and estimated time charts. Retrieved from http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/tg/sr/documents/itemtime2011.doc

California Department of Education. (2010). Allowable testing variations and accommodations for the 2010 California modified assessment.
Retrieved from http://www.startest.org/pdfs/CMA.acc_table.2010.doc

California Department of Education. (2007). Differences between CST and CMA.
Retrieved from http://www.cde.ca.gov/be/ag/ag/yr07/documents/bluenov07 item14a6.pdf

California Department of Education. (2010). Student participation in statewide assessments: CMA updates. Retrieved from http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/se/sr/documents/cmaslides.ppt

California Department of Education. (2010). Testing variations, accommodations, and modifications. Retrieved from http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/tg/sa/documents/matrix2010.doc

Connecticut

Connecticut State Department of Education. (2010). Connecticut academic performance test modified assessment system (CAPT MAS) fact sheet. Retrieved from http://www.csde.state.ct.us/public/cedar/assessment/mas/resources/CAPTMAS%20Overview%209-16-10FINAL.pdf

Connecticut State Department of Education. (2010). Connecticut academic performance test modified assessment system: What grade 10 students and their parents should know about the CAPT MAS. Retrieved from http://www.csde.state.ct.us/public/cedar/ass essment/capt/resources/misc_capt
/2011% 20CAPT%20MAS%20Brochure.pdf

Connecticut State Department of Education. (2010). Connecticut academic performance test third generation 2011 test coordinator's manual. Retrieved from http://www.csde.stat e.ct.us/public/cedar/assessment/capt/resources/misc_capt/2011%20CAPT%20TCM.10.pdf

Connecticut State Department of Education. (2009). Connecticut mastery test and Connecticut academic performance modified assessment system. Retrieved from http://www.csde.state.ct.us/public/cedar/assessment/common/MAS2010memo.pdf

Connecticut State Department of Education. (2010).Connecticut mastery test fourth generation 2011 test coordinator's manual Retrieved from
http://www.csde.state.ct.us/pu blic/cedar/assessment/cmt/resources/misc_cmt/Test%20Coordinators%20Manual%202011.pdf

Connecticut State Department of Education. (2010). Connecticut mastery test modified assessment system (CMT MAS) fact sheet. Retrieved from
http://www.csde.state.ct.us/ public/cedar/assessment/mas/resources/CMTMAS%20Overview91610%20FINAL.pdf

Georgia

Georgia Department of Education. (2011). Criterion-referenced competency test – modified (CRCT-M): Frequently asked questions. Retrieved from
http://www.gadoe.org/DMGetDocument.aspx/CRCTM%20FAQ%20Final.pdf?p=6CC6799F8C1371F63D85061BB034DD3E806674
BE2220174100F3A3D6586C5C0D&Type=D

Georgia Department of Education. (2011). Georgia criterion-referenced competency tests Spring 2011: Test examiner's manual. Retrieved from http://gadoe.org/DMGetDoc ument.aspx/CRCT%20TEM%20Spring%202011%20Gr%2038.pdf?p=6CC6799F8C1371F630EF1EB06F4F07ABA2A31162
E574370804445CAE7285FFE5&Type=D

Georgia Department of Education. (2010). Questions and answers about the criterion-referenced competency tests – modified (CRTC-M). Retrieved from http://www.doe.k12.ga.us/DMGetDocument.aspx/CRCTM%20Brochure.pdf?p=6CC6799F8C1371F67243F842E9BDF8E477
55FE4566E46CE94495C2955C63B53A&Type=D

Georgia Department of Education. (2010). Sample items: Grade 3 English/language arts [also grades 4-8]. Retrieved from
http://www.doe.k12.ga.us/ci_testing.aspx?folderID= 62163&m=links&ft=CRCTM Test Items

Georgia Department of Education. (2010). Sample items: Grade 3 mathematics [also grades 4-8]. Retrieved from
http://www.doe.k12.ga.us/ci_testing.aspx?folderID=62163& m=links&ft=CRCTM Test Items

Georgia Department of Education. (2010). Sample items: Grade 3 reading [also grades 4-8]. Retrieved from
http://www.doe.k12.ga.us/ci_testing.aspx?folderID=62163&m=links& ft=CRCTMTestItems

Georgia Department of Education. (2010). Student Assessment Handbook CRCT-M Addendum. Retrieved from
http://www.gadoe.org/DMGetDocument.aspx/Student%20A ssessment%20Handbook%20CRCTM%20Addendum.doc?p=6CC6799F8C1371F6BA8651CA687D9D1CF02564EAD38DE13327BDF56AD8311020&Type=D

Indiana

Indiana Department of Education. (2010). 2010-2011 ISTEP+ program manual: Policies and procedures for Indiana's assessment system. Retrieved from http://www.doe.in.gov/assessment/docs/ProgramManual.pdf

Indiana Department of Education. (2010). IMAST English/language arts sample items (grades 3-5) [also for grades 6-8]. Retrieved from
http://www.doe.in.gov/assessment/ imast_resources.html

Indiana Department of Education. (2010). IMAST mathematics sample items (grades 3-5) [also for grades 6-8]. Retrieved from
http://www.doe.in.gov/assessment/imast_resour ces.html

Indiana Department of Education. (2010). IMAST science sample items (grades 4, 6). Retrieved from
http://www.doe.in.gov/assessment/docs/IMAST_Item_Sampler_SCI_4-6.pdf

Indiana Department of Education. (2010). IMAST social studies sample items (grades 5, 7). Retrieved from http://www.doe.in.gov/assessment/docs/IMAST_Item_Sampler_SS_5-7.pdf

Kansas

Kansas State Department of Education. (2010). 2010-2011 Kansas assessment examiner's manual.
http://www.ksde.org/Default.aspx?tabid=420#EXMAN

Kansas State Department of Education. (2009). Arctic terns. Retrieved from
http://www.ksde.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=6tEFroUmoI%3d&tabid=23 71&mid=8893

Kansas State Department of Education. (2009). Camping at whispering woods. Retrieved from
http://www.ksde.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=n9SIo5qlKQ%3d&tabid= 2371&mid=8893

Kansas State Department of Education. (2009). Kansas assessment with modified measures (KAMM) calculator use. Retrieved from
http://www.ksde.org/LinkClick.aspx?fi leticket=doGB_6_Enpc%3d&tabid=2371&mid=8892

Kansas State Department of Education. (2010). Kansas assessment of modified measures: Writing assessment for students with disabilities Q & A. Retrieved from http://www.ksde.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=jr5Hqvci-tU%3D&tabid=2371&mid=8891

Kansas State Department of Education. (2010). Kansas curricular standards for reading education. Retrieved from
http://www.ksde.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=D2XDTMR7y30 %3d&tabid=2371&mid=8894

Kansas State Department of Education. (2010). Kansas history-government assessment fact sheet 2010-2011. Retrieved from
http://www.ksde.org/Default.aspx?tabid=2364=-

Kansas State Department of Education. (2010). Kansas writing assessment factor sheet 2010-2011. Retrieved from
http://www.ksde.org/Default.aspx?tabid=2364

Kansas State Department of Education. (2009). Kodiak Island. Retrieved from
http://www.ksde.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=Px1n-s1QarY%3d&tabid=2371&mid=8893

Kansas State Department of Education. (2009). Make a musical instrument. Retrieved from
http://www.ksde.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=9dgreZUT2gI%3d&tabid=2371&mid= 8893

Kansas State Department of Education. (2009). Questions about the 2009-2010 Kansas assessment of modified measures (KAMM). Retrieved from http://www.ksde.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=mXWLVp-jvFI%3d&tabid=2371&mid=8892

Kansas State Department of Education. (2007). Sample problems illustrative of items based on modified academic achievement standards. Retrieved from
http://www.ksde.o rg/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=WGqaR6EvQ2k%3d&tabid=2371&mid=8893

The Center for Educational Testing & Evaluation. (2011). Welcome page for Kansas assessment programs.
Retrieved from http://www.cete.us/kap/

Louisiana

Louisiana Department of Education. (2010). 2009-2010 annual report: LEAP alternate assessment, level 2.
Retrieved from http://doe.louisiana.gov/lde/uploads/17589.pdf

Louisiana Department of Education. (2010). A parent's guide: LEAP alternate assessment, Level 2 (LAA2):
Retrieved from www.doe.state.la.us/lde/uploads/13500.pdf

Louisiana Department of Education. (2009).Interpretive guide: LEAP alternate assessment, Level 2.
Retrieved from http://doe.louisiana.gov/lde/uploads/9731.pdf

Louisiana Department of Education. (2008). LAA2 LEAP alternate assessment, level 2, assessment guide: English language arts and mathematics (grades 4, 8, 10) science and social studies (grades 4, 8, 11). Retrieved from http://doe.louisiana.gov/lde/uploads/8524.pdf

Louisiana Department of Education. (2009). LAA2 test administration manual: English language arts, mathematics, science, social studies.
Retrieved from http://www.doe.state.la.us/lde/uploads/15136.pdf

Louisiana Department of Education. (2010). LAA2 test administration manual: English language arts, mathematics, science, social studies (grades 10, 11).
Retrieved from http://doe.louisiana.gov/lde/uploads/17031.pdf

Louisiana Department of Education. (2010). LEAP and GEE test administration manual.
Retrieved from www.doe.state.la.us/lde/uploads/15311.pdf

Maryland

Maryland State Department of Education. (2008). English: HSA public release items compared to Mod-HAS public release items [also for biology, government, algebra/data analysis].
Retrieved from http://docushare.msde.state.md.us/docushare/dsweb/View/C ollection-15814

Maryland State Department of Education. (2008). High school assessment: Algebra/data analysis. [also Biology, English, Government].
Retrieved from http://mdk12.org/assessments/high_school/look_like/

Maryland State Department of Education. (n.d.). HSA: High school assessment program.
Retrieved from http://mdk12.org/assessments/high_school/index_d2.html

Maryland State Department of Education. (n.d.). Maryland modified school assessment (Mod-MSA).
Retrieved from http://mdk12.org/assessments/mod_ msa/index.html

Maryland State Department of Education. (2011). Overview of the 2009 Maryland school assessment-Mathematics. Retrieved from http://www.marylandpublicschools.org/NR/rdo nlyres/A8EB4B5CB116466F9EA46AEDAC06C943/27317/
2009_MSA_Math_TechReport_Final_SECTION_1.pdf

Maryland State Department of Education. (2011). Overview of the 2009 Maryland school assessment-Reading. Retrieved from
http://www.marylandpublicschools.org/NRrdonlyr es/1656DB524FE141CCBD9CC4C2AECC8944/27300/
2009_MSA_Reading_TechReport_Final_1_OVERVIEW.pdf

Maryland State Department of Education. (2011). Practice assessment tools. Retrieved from
http://www.pearsonaccess.com/cs/Satellite?c=Page&childpagename=Maryland%2 FmdPALPLayout&cid=
1175826727300&pagename=mdPALPWrapper

Maryland State Department of Education. (2008). Practice test for Mod-HSA Algebra/data analysis [also Biology, English, Government].
Retrieved from http://mdk12.org/assessments/high_school/index.html

Michigan

Michigan Department of Education. (2009). Assessment accommodation summary table. Retrieved from http://www.michigan.gov/documents/mde/Updated_Revised_Accommod ation_Summary_Table_092909_294052_7.pdf

Michigan Department of Education. (2009). MEAP-Access coordinator and assessment administrator manual: Winter 2009 pilot. Retrieved from http://www.michigan.gov/docum ents/mde/09_MEAP_Access_Pilot_CAAM_011309Final_263081_7.pdf

Michigan Department of Education. (2009). MEAP-Access fall 2009 webcast. Retrieved from
http://www.michigan.gov/documents/mde/F09_MEAPAccess_Webcast_091609__ 293307_7.ppt

Michigan Department of Education. (2011). MEAP-Access frequently asked questions. Retrieved from
http://www.michigan.gov/documents/mde/MEAP-Access_FAQ_12-1-0_ 339709_7.pdf

Michigan Department of Education. (2011). MEAP-Access OEAA/OSE-EIS Webcast Powerpoint. Retrieved from
http://www.mistreamnet.com/docs/downdockit.php?what=MI-Access_030911.ppt

Michigan Department of Education. (2011). MEAP-Access Spring 2011 webcast.
Retrieved from http://www.mistreamnet.com/vidflv.php?who=mde030911

Michigan Department of Education. (2009). MEAP-Access test administrator manual.
Retrieved from http://www.michigan.gov/documents/mde/MEAPAccess_Test_Administ rator_Manual-Online_Version_290878_7.pdf

Michigan Department of Education. (2011). Michigan Statewide Assessment Selection Guidelines. Retrieved from http://www.michigan.gov/documents/mde/ASG_Manual_FINAL_2010-11_347154_7.pdf

Minnesota

Minnesota Department of Education. (2011). 2011 Title 1 Assessment Manual. Retrieved from
http://education.state.mn.us/mdeprod/groups/Assessment/documents/Manual/ 033825.pdf

Minnesota Department of Education. (2010). Draft Mathematics test specifications for MCA-III, grades 3-8 and MCA-modified, grades 5-8. Retrieved from http://education.state.mn.us/mdeprod/idcplg?IdcService=GET_FILE&dDocName=034627&
RevisionSelectionMethod=latestReleased&Rendition=primary

Minnesota Department of Education. (2010). Draft test specifications for mathematics, grade 11. Retrieved from
http://education.state.mn.us/mdeprod/idcplg?IdcService=GET_FILE&dDocName=018196&RevisionSelection
Method=latestReleased&Rendition=primary

Minnesota Department of Education. (2010). Draft test specifications for reading. Retrieved from
http://education.state.mn.us/mdeprod/idcplg?IdcService=GET_FILE&d DocName=018194&RevisionSelectionMethod
=latestReleased&Rendition=primary

Minnesota Department of Education. (2011). Mathematics MCA-modified grade 8 item sampler teacher guide. Retrieved from
http://www.pearsonaccess.com/cs/Satellite?c=Pa ge&childpagename=Minnesota%2FmnPALPLayout&cid=1205461255328&p=1205461255328&pagename=mnPALPWrapper&resourcecategory=Item+Samplers

Minnesota Department of Education. (2011). MCA mathematics grade 7 teacher guide. Retrieved from
http://www.pearsonaccess.com/cs/Satellite?c=Page&childpagename= Minnesota%2FmnPALPLayout&cid=1205461255328&p=1205461255328&pagename=mnPALPWrapper&resourcecategory=Item+Samplers

Minnesota Department of Education. (2011). Minnesota comprehensive assessments-modified: Mathematics item sampler grade 11. Retrieved from http://education.state.mn.us/MDE/Accountability_Programs/Assessment_and_ Testing/ Assessments/Alternate/
Alternate_Item_Samplers/index.html

Minnesota Department of Education. (2010). Minnesota comprehensive assessments-series II: Mathematics item sampler grade 11. Retrieved from http://education.state.mn.us/MDE/Accountability_Programs/Assessment_and_Testing/Assessments/MCA/Samplers/index.html

Minnesota Department of Education. (2011). Minnesota comprehensive assessments-modified: Reading item sampler grade 5 [also grades 6-8 and 10]. Retrieved from http://education.state.mn.us/MDE/Accountability_Programs/Assessment_and_Testing/Assessments/Alternate/
Alternate_Item_Samplers/index.html

Minnesota Department of Education. (2010). Minnesota comprehensive assessments-series II: Reading item sampler grade 5 [also grades 6-8, 10]. Retrieved from http://education.state.mn.us/MDE/Accountability_Programs/Assessment_and_Testing/Assessments/MCA/Samplers/index.html

Minnesota Department of Education. (2010). Procedures manual for the Minnesota assessment 2010-2011. Retrieved from
http://education.state.mn.us/mdeprod/idcplg?Idc Service=GET_FILE&dDocName=035664&RevisionSelectionMethod=
latestReleased&Rendition=primary

North Carolina

North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. (2008). NCEXTEND2 assessments.
Retrieved from http://www.ncpublicschools.org/accountability/policies /tswd/ncextend2

North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. (2008). Sample items for the NCEXTEND2 EOG grade 3 mathematics test [also grades 4-8]. Retrieved from http://www.ncpublicschools.org/accountability/testing/eog/sampleitems/math

North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. (2008). Sample items for the North Carolina EOG grade 3 mathematics test [also grades 4-8]. Retrieved from http://www.ncpublicschools.org/accountability/testing/eog/sampleitems/math

North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. (2009). Testing students with disabilities: North Carolina testing program. Retrieved from http://www.ncpublicschools.org/docs/accountability/policyoperations/tswd/tswd.pdf

North Dakota

North Dakota Department of Public Instruction. (2010). Comparison of NDAA-1 and NDAA-2.
Retrieved from http://www.dpi.state.nd.us/speced/resource/alternate/side_by_ side.pdf

North Dakota Department of Public Instruction. (2010). North Dakota Alternate Assessment – 2 (2009-2010): Technical Manual.
Retrieved from http://www.dpi.state.nd.us/speced/resource/alternate/NDAA2_technical_manual.pdf

North Dakota Department of Public Instruction. (2010). North Dakota alternate assessment 2: 2010-11 test directions manual.
Retrieved from http://www.dpi.state.nd.us /speced/resource/alternate/NDAA2_Test_Directions_Manual.pdf

North Dakota Department of Public Instruction. (2010). Three sided (side-by-side-by-side) comparison of the North Dakota state assessment participation options.
Retrieved from http://www.dpi.state.nd.us/speced/resource/alternate/3_sides_ options.pdf

Ohio

Ohio Department of Education. (2009). 2% AA-MAS working group fall 2008 pilot study: Technical report. Retrieved from http://www.ode.state.oh.us/GD/DocumentManagement/ DocumentDownload.aspx?DocumentID=74516

Ohio Department of Education. (2009). 2% AA-MAS working group spring 2009 pilot study: Technical report.
Retrieved from http://www.ode.state.oh.us/GD/DocumentMana gement/DocumentDownload.aspx?DocumentID=73925

Ohio Department of Education. (2010). AA-MAS development timeline. Retrieved from
http://www.ode.state.oh.us/GD/DocumentManage ment/DocumentDownload.aspx?Docu mentID=90304

Ohio Department of Education. (2009). Alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS) practice test: English language arts and mathematics. Retrieved from
http://www.ode.state.oh.us/GD/DocumentManagement/DocumentDown load.aspx?DocumentID=73924

Ohio Department of Education. (2010). Alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS): Test coordinator and test administrator manual. Retrieved from
http://www.ohiodocs.org/AAMAS/2009_2010/AAMAS_Spr10_Manual.pdf

Ohio Department of Education. (2005). Ohio achievement tests grade 7 mathematics. Student test booklet: Half-length practice tests.
Retrieved from http://education.ohio.gov/ GD/DocumentManagement/DocumentDownload.aspx?DocumentID=4689

Ohio Department of Education. (2005). Ohio achievement tests grade 7 reading. Student test booklet: Half-length practice tests.
Retrieved from http://education.ohio.gov/GD/Doc umentManagement/DocumentDownload.aspx?DocumentID=4692

Oklahoma

Oklahoma State Department of Education. (2009). Oklahoma modified alternate assessment program (OMAAP).
Retrieved from http://sde.state.ok.us/acctassess/pdf/ Presentations/OMAAP.ppt

Oklahoma State Department of Education. (2010). Oklahoma modified alternate assessment program (OMAAP) algebra I, parent, student, and teacher guide [also English II, Biology I, U.S. History].
Retrieved from http://sde.state.ok.us/acctassess/OMAAP.html

Oklahoma State Department of Education. (2011). Oklahoma modified alternate assessment program (OMAAP) mathematics & reading grade 3, parent, student, and teacher guide [also grades 5-7].
Retrieved from http://sde.state.ok.us/acctassess/OMAAP.html

Oklahoma State Department of Education. (2011). Oklahoma modified alternate assessment program (OMAAP) mathematics, reading and science grade 5, parent, student, and teacher guide [also grade 8].
Retrieved from http://sde.state.ok.us/acctassess/OMAAP.html

Oklahoma State Department of Education. (2010). Oklahoma school testing program core curriculum tests end-of-instruction ACE algebra I parent, students, and teachers guide. [also Algebra II, English II, English III, Biology I, Geometry, U.S. History].
Retrieved from http://sde.state.ok.us/AcctAssess/core.html

Oklahoma State Department of Education. (2011). Oklahoma school testing program core curriculum tests grade 3 mathematics and reading parent, student, and teacher guide [also grades 4-8].
Retrieved from http://sde.state.ok.us/AcctAssess/core.html

Oklahoma State Department of Education. (2011). Oklahoma school testing program core curriculum tests online test administration manual: Grade 7 geography. [also grade 8 mathematics and reading, Algebra I, Algebra II, Geometry, Biology I, U.S. History, English II, English III].
Retrieved from http://sde.state.ok.us/acctassess/testadmin.html

Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania Department of Education. (2011). 2010-2011 assessment handbook. Retrieved from
http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/http;//www.portal.state.pa.us;80/port al/server.pt/gateway/PTARGS_0_123031_999720_0_0_18/
PSSA_Assessment_Handbook_2010-2011.pdf

Pennsylvania Department of Education. (2011). Accommodations guidelines, PSSA, PSSA-M, Keystone Exams, for English language learners. Retrieved from http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/http;//www.portal.state.pa.us;80/portal/server.pt/gateway/
PTARGS_0_123031_1038658_0_0_18/Accommodations_for_ELLs_2011.pdf

Pennsylvania Department of Education. (2011). Pennsylvania state assessments 2011. Retrieved from http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/http;//www.portal.state.pa.us;80/port al/server.pt/gateway/PTARGS_0_123031_994390_0_0_18/PSSA_Getting_Ready_Roll_Out_2011.pdf

Pennsylvania Department of Education. (2009). The Pennsylvania system of school assessment: Mathematics item and scoring sampler 2009-2010 grade 4. Retrieved from
http://www.education.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/pennsylvania_system_of_school_ assessment_%28pssa%29/8757/resource_materials/507610

Pennsylvania Department of Education. (2009). The Pennsylvania system of school assessment: Modified mathematics item and scoring sampler 2009-2010 grade 4 [also Grades 5-8 and 11]. Retrieved from
http://www.education.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/ community/pennsylvania_system_of_school_assessment_%28pssa%29/8757/resource_materials/507610

Pennsylvania Department of Education. (2010). The Pennsylvania system of school assessment: Modified reading item and scoring sampler 2010-2011 grade 4 [also Grades 5-8 and 11] Retrieved from http://www.education.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/ pennsylvania_system_of_school_assessment_%28pssa%29/8757/resource_materials/507610

Pennsylvania Department of Education. (2010). The Pennsylvania system of school assessment: Modified science item and scoring sampler 2010-2011 grade 8 [also Grades 11] Retrieved from http://www.education.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/ pennsylvania_system_of_school_assessment_%28pssa%29/8757/resource_materials/507610

Pennsylvania Department of Education. (2010). PSSA-M: Assigning students to the test and understanding participation. Retrieved from http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/http;//www.portal.state.pa.us;80/portal/server.pt/gateway/
PTARGS_0_123031_994866_0_0_18/PSSA-M_Webinar_November_2010.pdfan>

Tennessee

Tennessee Department of Education. (2010). Modified academic achievement standards assessment: TCAP MASS 2010-2011.
Retrieved from http://www.tennessee.gov/education/assessment/doc/MAAS_2010-11_ppt.pdf

Tennessee Department of Education. (2011). Modified academic achievement standards: Teachers directions spring 2011.
Retrieved from http://www.state.tn.us/ education/assessment/doc/MAAS_Teacher_Dir_Spr2011_000.PDF

Tennessee Department of Education. (2009). Tennessee comprehensive assessment program achievement test: Grade 3 item sampler [also grades 4-8]. Retrieved from http://www.state.tn.us/education/assessment/ach _samplers.shtml

Tennessee Department of Education. (2009). Tennessee comprehensive assessment program modified academic achievement standards: Grade 3 item sampler [also grades 4-8].
Retrieved from http://www.state.tn.us/education/assessment/doc/MAAS_G3_Item Sampler.pdf

Tennessee Department of Education. (2010). The 2% TCAP-MAAS and standards-based IEPs: What are they and how will they help us?
Retrieved from http://www.state.tn.us/education/speced/doc/3609TCAPMAAS.ppt

Texas

Texas Education Agency. (2010). An explanation of test results for 2010: TAKS-M. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/WorkArea/linkit.aspx?LinkIdentifier=id&Item ID=2147489337&libID=2147489336

Texas Education Agency. (2009). Released TAKS tests [grade 3 reading]. Retrieved from http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/student.assessment/resources/online/2009/taks_g03_re ad/3reading.html

Texas Education Agency. (2009). Released TAKS-M tests [grade 3 reading].
Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index3.aspx?id=5298&menu_id=793

Texas Education Agency. (2010). TAKS-M general test administration manual 2011, grades 3-11. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/student.assessment/special-ed/taksm/GenTAManual2011.pdf

Texas Education Agency. (2009). TAKS-M modification guidelines for grades 3-11 reading/ELA [also mathematics, social studies, and writing]. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/student.assessment/special-ed/taksm/guidelines/

Texas Education Agency. (2009). TAKS-M modification guidelines for grades 5, 8, 10, and 11 science. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/student.assessment/special-ed/taksm/guidelines

Texas Education Agency. (2010). TAKS-M test administration directions, 2011, grades 3-5 [also grades 6-8 and grades 9-11].
Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/student.ass essment/special-ed/taksm/manuals/

Texas Education Agency. (2007). Texas assessment of knowledge and skills-modified (TAKS-M) blueprint for grade 3 reading [also mathematics, science, social studies, and writing].
Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/student.assessment/specialed/taksm/blueprints/

Texas Education Agency. (2002). Texas Assessment of knowledge and skills (TAKS): Blueprint for grades 3-8 reading. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index3.aspx?id=3228&menu_id=793

Virginia

Virginia Department of Education. (2010). Examiner's manual: Virginia modified achievement standards test, grade 3-8 mathematics & algebra I, spring 2011 field test. Retrieved from
http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/alternative_assessments/vmast_va_m od_achievement_stds_test/index.shtml

Virginia Department of Education. (2010). Examiner's manual: Virginia modified achievement standards test, grade 8 reading, grade 8 mathematics, spring 2010 field test. Retrieved from http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/alternative_assessments/vmast _va_mod_achievement_stds_test/vmast_examiners_manual.pdf

Virginia Department of Education. (2010). Superintendent's memo #114-10: Implementation schedule for the Virginia modified achievement standards test (VMAST). Retrieved from http://www.doe.virginia.gov/administrators/superintendents_memos /2010/114-10.shtml

Virginia Department of Education. (2010). Superintendent's memo #301-10: Nominations for 2011 Virginia modified achievement standards test (VMAST) reading item support committees. Retrieved from http://www.vate.org/pdf/board_meetings/VDOE% 20for%20
VATE%20Bd%201-08-2011.pdf

Virginia Department of Education. (2009). Technical innovations in Virginia's assessment program. Retrieved from http://www.doe.virginia.gov/boe/meetings/2009 /04_apr/agenda_items/item_d.pdf

Virginia Department of Education. (2010). Virginia modified achievement standards test (VMAST) practice test manual. Retrieved from http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing /alternative_assessments/vmast_va_mod_achievement_stds_test/
vmast_practice_test_manual.pdf

Virginia Department of Education. (2009). Virginia modified achievement standards test [Webinar]. Retrieved from http://www.vdoe.whro.org/VMAST_05.28.09.wmv

Virginia Department of Education. (2011). VMAST practice items. Retrieved from http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/alternative_assessments/vmast_va_mod_achievement_stds_test/
practice_items/index.shtmlan>


Appendix B

AA-MAS Characteristics by State /h2>

Table B1. AA-MAS Name, Content Area, and Grade Described by State

State

Assessment Name

Content Areas/Grades

Notes

California

California Modified Assessment (CMA)

Math (3-7); English Language Arts (3-11); Writing (4, 7); Science (5, 8); Algebra I (7-111); Geometry (8-111); Life Science (10)

Operational

Connecticut

Connecticut Mastery Test Modified Assessment System (CMT MAS) and Connecticut Academic Performance Test Modified Assessment System (CAPT MAS)

Math and Reading (3-8, 102)

 

 

Operational

Georgia

Georgia Criterion-Referenced Competency Tests – Modified (CRCT-M)

Math and Reading (3-8); English Language Arts (3-8)

Operational

Indiana

Indiana Modified Achievement Standards Test (IMAST)

Math and English Language Arts (3-8); Science (4, 6); Social Studies (5, 7)

Operational

Kansas3

Kansas Assessment of Modified Measures (KAMM)

Math and Reading (3-8, HS); Writing (5, 8, HS); Science (4, 7) History-Government (9, 11)

Operational

Louisiana

Louisiana Educational Assessment Program (LEAP) Alternate Assessment, Level 2

Math and English Language Arts (4-8, 10-11); Science (4, 8, 11); Social Studies (4, 8, 11)

Operational

Maryland

Maryland Modified High School Assessment (Mod-HSA); Maryland Modified School Assessment (Mod-MSA)

Math and Reading (3-8); Algebra, Biology, English, and Government (HS)

Operational

Michigan

Michigan Educational Assessment Program (MEAP) Access

Math and Reading (3-8); Writing (4, 7)

Piloted Winter 2009. Operational by Fall 2011.

Minnesota

Minnesota Comprehensive Assessment (MCA) Modified

Math and Reading (5-8, 10)

Operational as of Spring 2011

North Carolina

NCEXTEND2 Alternate Assessment for End-of-Grade (EOG)

Math and Reading (3-8); Science (5, 8)

Operational

North Dakota

North Dakota Alternate Assessment 2 (NDAA2)

Math and Reading/Language Arts (3-8, 11); Science (4, 8, 11)

Operational

Ohio

Ohio's Alternate Assessment based on Modified Achievement Standards (AA-MAS)

Math and Reading (5-8, 10)

Ohio's AA-MAS was field tested in spring 2010 and is continuing with pilot testing in 2012.

Oklahoma

Oklahoma Modified Alternate Assessment Program (OMAAP)

Math and Reading (3-8); Science (5, 8); End-of-Instruction Tests, High School (Algebra I, Biology I, English II, and U.S. History)

Operational

Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania System of School Assessment-Modified (PSSA-M)

Math and Reading (4-8, 11); Science (8, 11)

Operational

Tennessee

Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP) Modified Academic Achievement Standards (MAAS)

Math and Reading/Language Arts (3-8); Science (3-8); Social Studies (3-8)

Operational

Texas

Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills Modified (TAKS-M)

Math (3-11); Reading (3-9); English Language Arts (10-11); Writing (4, 7) Science (5, 8, 10-11); Social Studies (8, 10, 11)

Operational

Virginia

Virginia Modified Achievement Standards Test (VMAST)

Math and Reading (3-8); Algebra 1 (End-of-Course)

Virginia's Math tests will be field tested in spring 2011 and are expected to be operational by 2011-2012. Virginia's reading tests will be field tested in spring 2012 and are expected to be operational by the 2012-2013 school year.

1 Students will complete the assessment during one of the school years mentioned.

2 CAPT MAS is available as a live test for identified grade 10 students and as a retest for individual students in grade 11 and 12.

3 Kansas offers KAMM Opportunity to Learn (OTL) assessments for grades 9-12 in math, reading, science, writing, and history-government. The OTL assessments are designed to give students the opportunity to learn the content standards prior to participation in the KAMM. According to the Kansas Assessment Examiner's Manual this assessment option "provides High Schools with flexibility in determining when to assess students."

 

Table B2. Assessment Type and Question Characteristic by Content Area for States' AA-MAS, 2011

Table B2 Presented as a Figure 

Note: Shading indicates a state does not have a separate assessment for that content area.

1 Connecticut's Mastery Test Modified Assessment System (CMT MAS) and Connecticut's Academic Performance Test (CAPT) Modified Assessment System (MAS) are both available for Reading and Mathematics.

2Georgia has separate tests for both English/Language Arts and Reading in grades 3 to 8.

3 Kansas offers a general and KAMM writing assessment that are available some years but are not available for the 2010-2011 year.

4 No information on question characteristics found for Maryland Modified School Assessment (Mod-MSA). Maryland Modified High School Assessment (Mod-HSA) covers the following content areas: Algebra, Biology, English, and Government.

5 The English II EOI Modified Assessment had 40 multiple choice items and one writing prompt. Students eligible for the OMAAP in grades 5 and 8 must take the general writing assessment. Likewise, students eligible for the OMAAP in grades 5, 7, and 8 must take the general assessment for social studies, geography, and U.S. History, Constitution, and Government.

6 TAKS-M includes a writing prompt for students taking the Writing tests in grades 4 and 7, as well as students in grades 10 and 11 taking the English Language Arts (ELA) test.

 

Table B3. Comparison of AA-MAS and Regular Assessment: Design Changes, 2011

Table B3 Presented as a Figure Table B2, continued 

figb3

*See Table B4 for specifications and for descriptions of "other" design changes.

1Virginia identified "potential supports and scaffolds" to be used on the VMAST.

2 Tennessee identified "possible" design changes for the TCAP MAAS.

3 Indicates design change on Ohio's AA-MAS Spring 2009 pilot and Fall 2008 pilot.

4 Indicates design change identified via visual comparison of AA-MAS and regular assessment item samplers. The change was not explicitly identified in state documents.

 

Table B4. Specifications and Descriptions of Assessment Design Changes and of "Other" Assessment Design Changes, 2011

Table B4 Presented as a Figure

Table B4, continued

Table B4, continued

Table B4, continued

Table B4, continued

Table B4, continued

Table B4, continued

Table B4, continued

Table B4, continued

Table B4, continued

Table B4, continued

Table B4, continued

Table B4, continued

Table B4, continued

Table B4, continued

 

Table B5. Online or Computer-Based Testing for States' AA-MAS, 2011

State

Reading

Writing

Math

Science

Social

Studies

California

Connecticut*

X

X

Georgia

Indiana

Kansas*

X

X

X

X

X

Louisiana

Maryland*

X

X

X

X

Michigan

Minnesota*

X

North Carolina

North Dakota*

X

X

X

Ohio

Oklahoma

Pennsylvania

Tennessee

Texas

Virginia*

X

X

Total

5

1

6

3

2

* See Table B6 and Table B7 for descriptions.

Shading indicates a state does not have a separate assessment for that content area.

 

Table B6. Description of States' Online or Computer-based Testing for AA-MAS, 2011

State

Description

Connecticut

General Description

Reading: Beginning with the 2010 test administration, the Reading CMT/CAPT MAS tests will be administered online to all eligible students. For Reading CMT MAS, these subtests include Reading Comprehension and Degrees of Reading Power (DRP). For Reading CAPT MAS, these subtests include Reading for Information and Response to Literature. Students registered on the CAPT/CMT Accommodations Data Collection Web Site for the Reading CMT/CAPT MAS tests, take these tests using the Measurement Incorporated Secured Testing (MIST) application; The 2011 MAS administration will require all students assessed with the CAPT MAS reading test to submit their responses using the MIST application; Students assessed with the CMT MAS must be tested in a separate setting from students assessed with the standard CMT. Within a school, each test session of the CMT MAS must be administered on the same schedule to students in the same grade. For example, all Grade 3 students assessed with the CMT MAS in mathematics must take CMT MAS Mathematics Session 1 on the same schedule. There is no requirement that CMT MAS test sessions be administered on the same schedule as the standard CMT for mathematics and reading.

Accommodations1

Reading: The MIST application is the same online application used for students who receive the Word Processor/Online Computer Response Accommodation. Since this will be the primary method for taking this test, there is no need to indicate this is an accommodation on the accommodation form for the Reading CMT/CAPT MAS tests; As a new feature on MIST, students taking the Reading CMT/CAPT MAS, who need the Reader-directions only accommodation, may have this accommodation provided through MIST; MIST will eventually include features that provide other accommodations through this online environment (i.e., print/screen enlargement, text reader for test items, and the ability to use a variety of input devices for greater student response independence); There are new features on the MIST application. One of these features is the Reader of Directions Only and Reader of Test Items accommodation. These accommodations must be provided using the text reader available on the MIST application for all test sessions except the supplemental tests.

Kansas

General Description

The KAMM is available through Kansas Computerized Assessment (KCA). The Kansas Assessment programs (computerized and paper and pencil) are designed to meet the requirements of the federal No Child Left Behind Act. The KCA project provides not only the online testing interface for students, but online training tools, tutorials, and practice and formative tests for each subject area to educate and prepare school personnel and students for online testing.

Accommodations1

Reading, Math, Science: Paper-pencil assessments may only be used for an accommodation; There are three options for administering the read-aloud accommodation to an individual: KCA administration, KCA audio voice; KCA administration, adult reader; Paper/pencil accommodation, adult reader.

Maryland

General Description

Algebra, Biology, English, and Government: The Mod-HSA will be administered either by computer ("Online" testing) or by paper and pencil ("Paper" testing); Online tests are administered according to a flexible administration schedule set by each LEA within the overall State-mandated HSA testing window; Online or paper test-takers without an extended time accommodation must complete all three sessions of each content area test over the course of a single school day.

Minnesota

General Description

Reading MCA-Modified and the grade 11 Mathematics MCA-Modified are paper administration mode only. Grades 5–8 Mathematics MCA-Modified are online administration mode only; The grade 5–8 and 10 Reading MCA-Modified and grade 11 Mathematics MCA-Modified are paper administration mode assessments aligned with the 2003 Academic Content Standards. These assessments are divided into four segments. The grades 5–8 Mathematics MCA-Modified are aligned to the 2007 Academic Content Standards and are only administered online. Like the Mathematics MCA-III, students taking the test in online administration mode will be able to pause at an item and resume the test at a later time, will have access to an online calculator when allowed and will use an easily accessible formula sheet; The online Mathematics MCA and MCA-Modified can be stopped and resumed by a student at any point during the test. Tests are broken into multiple sections that contain approximately ten questions each. When a student completes the section, they are asked to confirm they are done. Once they move beyond the section, they are not allowed to go back; The design of the Mathematics MCA and MCA-Modified allows students in the same physical setting to take either test and provides seamless administration for the student and teacher—regardless of which test the student is taking. Therefore, both the Mathematics MCA and MCA-Modified can be administered in the same lab at the same time; Scheduling for the online Mathematics MCA and MCA-Modified may be arranged around computer availability, allowing an entire class of students to pause their administration at different points in the assessment and returning to complete it at a later time.

Accommodations1

Use of an Accommodated Form with Online Grades 5–8 Mathematics MCA-Modified Accommodations: Students must be assigned an accommodated form of the Mathematics MCA-Modified online test during session set-up when using the accommodated audio or script accommodation in conjunction with the online test. The accommodated audio is embedded in the accommodated form. If students are using a script accommodation in conjunction with the online form, make sure volume is muted before logging into TestNav and headphones are not being used by students. The Test Monitor must read exactly what is stated in the script. Refer to the Instructions for Use of Script Accommodations for more information on the script accommodation. Students must also be assigned an accommodated form if they will be using a large print or Braille test book because a scribe will enter the student's answers from the large print or Braille test book into an online accommodated test on PearsonAccess. A read-aloud of items is provided via built-in audio in the online assessment.

North

Dakota

General Description

Language Arts, Mathematics, Reading, and Science: The NDAA2 is a test which is given on a computer via a secure online web-based system. The NDAA2 consists of four sub-tests which can be taken in any order during the NDAA2 assessment window; The NDAA2 needs to be taken on a computer in a quiet, secure area free of distractions, with direct supervision; Each question is presented on the full computer screen; Answer choices are presented at the bottom of the screen and require that the student select one of the choices using the computer mouse; The next page/question is reached by using the mouse to toggle forward using the arrow at the bottom of the page; The student is able to go back and forth using the mouse to review answers and make changes if desired; Each sub-test is submitted by clicking on "submit" at the end of the test; Each answer is recorded as the student answers it.

Accommodations1

Language Arts, Mathematics, Reading, and Science: If the student is unable to use the mouse or make the answer choices alone, the teacher must assist by selecting the choices that the student makes. This should be recorded as an accommodation of using a scribe. As a scribe, the teacher may not help the student answer the questions or give any hints. A scribe can only provide answers given by the student.

Virginia

General Description

The VMAST will provide eligible students with access to online assessments in reading and mathematics that include research-based supports and simplifications identified by Virginia educators.

Accommodations1

If a student's Individualized Education Plan (IEP) includes accommodations, those accommodations should be provided during the VMAST practice test, if possible. If a student's accommodation includes an audio assessment, the practice test should be read aloud to the student. Audio copies of these assessments are not available at this time.

1For additional information about AA-MAS accommodations policies see Lazarus, Cormier, Crone, & Thurlow (2010).

 

Table B7. Online or Computer-Based Testing: Availability of Online Tutorials and Practice Tests for States' AA-MAS, 2011

State

Tutorials Available

Practice Tests Available

General Description and Specifications

Connecticut

X

General Description

Connecticut has CMT MAS and CAPT MAS practices tests available for both mathematics and reading. For the CMT MAS, the practice tests for math are not grade specific. The reading practice tests include grades 3-5 and grades 6-8. The CAPT MAS practice tests for science, reading, and math are not grade specific.

Specifications

Students assessed with the CMT MAS will take the same practice test with students assessed with the standard CMT. An optional CMT MAS Practice Test is available on the CSDE Website. The CMT MIST Practice Site is available for students to become familiar with the MIST application; This site allows students to take an online test using the Measurement Incorporated Secure Test (MIST) system. These practice tests are available to provide students with a first-hand look at the online testing interface before the live test administration in March. Students will also have the opportunity to practice using the available online tools as well as learn how to navigate through the test. No feedback or results will be provided.

Web site Link

https://mist.measinc.com/Proctor/Practice

Kansas

X

X

General Description

Kansas has online tutorials and practice test items for each content area and grade level. The tutorials and practice tests are available online but can be downloaded via software onto individual computers for practice and testing. Tutorials are available for students and teachers.

Specifications

KCA offers student tutorials that explain to the students how the KCA software works. Audio and non-audio tutorials are available. It is recommended that teachers review these tutorials as well. It may also be useful as a means of sharing information about the KCA system with others (e.g., other educators, parents, board members, site councils, etc.); The practice tests and tutorials can be accessed by downloading the KCA software on any computer that will be used to take the KCA practice, Formative, Interim, or Real NCLB test. Once you download the KCA software, you can access the tutorials from the button in the bottom right of the KCA menu page. The KCA Practice Tests can be accessed by clicking on the Practice Using the KCA Software link.

Web site Link

http://www.cete.us/kap/downloads/

Maryland

X

X

General Description

Maryland has online tutorials and practice items for each content area and grade level of the Mod-HSA and Mod-MSA.

Specifications

The resources here are intended to support and enhance student preparation for the Maryland State Assessments. These tutorials provide direct exposure to the format and structure of the questions, and enable users to receive direct feedback for each item. This site provides access to all Maryland assessments that are online including the Mod-HSA and the Mod-MSA for each content area.

Web site Link

http://www.pearsonaccess.com/cs/Satellite?c=Page&childpagename=Maryland%2FmdPALPLayout&cid=1175826727300&pagename=mdPALPWrapper

Minnesota

X

X

General Description

Minnesota has online tutorials and item samplers available for the mathematics MCA-modified for grades 5-8.

Specifications

The purpose of the item samplers is to familiarize students with the online MCA-Modified test format. The item samplers may also be used as venues for future item releases.

Web site Link

http://www.pearsonaccess.com/cs/Satellite?c=Page&childpagename=Minnesota%2FmnPALPLayout&cid=1205461255328&p=1205461255328&pagename=mnPALPWrapper&
resourcecategory=Student+Tutorialsan>

North

Dakota

X

General Description

A tutorial through the online program is available for teachers.

Specifications

Getting online – Directions for Teachers; To take the sample 2% test, click on the "Sample 2% Test" to get a feel for how the test will work. This sample test will take you through a three-item test.

Web site Link

http://www.datadrivenenterprises.com/ndaa/

Virginia

X

General Description

Virginia has practice tests available for Math grades 3-8 and Algebra I. Software for the practice tests must be downloaded onto a computer for access. Guides for teachers to use to familiarize students with the supports and simplification are available.

Specifications

The VMAST practice items give students the opportunity to use research-based supports and simplifications that have been applied to existing online mathematics items to make them more accessible for students with disabilities. The practice items are samples only. They do not cover all mathematics content for the grade level or course, nor do they provide examples of all item types or functionality that may be found in the field test items.

Web site Link

http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/online_testing/index.shtml

Total

4

5

Table B8. States' Considerations for ELL Students with Disabilities on AA-MAS, 2011

State

Considerations

California

Description

The CMA consists of untimed tests, but almost all students should complete the tests within the times listed. Each test part must be administered in a single sitting with no breaks unless the student has an IEP or Section 504 plan that allows for breaks as a testing accommodation or the student is an English learner who is eligible for breaks as a testing variation. However, if some students are actively working on a test when time is called, they must be allowed time to complete it.

Accommodations1

Allowable English Learner (EL) Variations
Hear the test directions printed in the test administration manual translated into the student's primary language. Ask clarifying questions about the test directions in the student's primary language. Additional supervised breaks within a testing day or within a test part provided that the test part is completed within the day of testing. The end of a test part is identified by a "STOP" sign; English learners (ELs) may have the opportunity to be tested separately with other ELs provided that the student is directly supervised by an employee of the school who has signed the test security affidavit and the student has been provided such a flexible setting as part of his/her regular instruction or assessment.

CMA for Math and Science ONLY
Access to translation glossaries/word lists (English-to-primary language). Glossaries/word lists shall not include definitions or formulas.

Connecticut

Description

A special education student who is also an English Language Learner (ELL) assessed with the CMT/CAPT MAS would follow the same criteria for exiting ELL services as all ELL students. More information can be accessed on the CSDE's Web site: http://www.csde.state.ct.us/public/cedar/assessment/common/MAS2010memo.pdf

Georgia

 

Indiana

 

Kansas

 

Louisiana

Description

A student may be classified as both LEP and special education and be eligible to participate in LAA 2.

Accommodations1

Use of the following LEP accommodations will be determined by the classroom teacher or other individual providing language services: extended time, individual/small group administration, provision of English/native language word-to-word dictionary (no definitions), test administered by ESL teacher or by individual providing language services, tests read aloud. LEP students who are eligible for LAA 2 may qualify for LEP accommodations provided they are routinely used in the students' classroom instruction and assessment and do not breach test security or invalidate the meaning of the test score or the purpose of the test. Answer documents for LEP students who have been enrolled in a primarily English-speaking school for less than a year may be coded for accountability. Do not translate passages, introductions, items/questions, or answer options on the test from English. General directions to the test, which appear in the manual, may be translated, as well as the boxed directions in the test booklet that appear at the beginning of the Reading and Responding and Proofreading sessions of the English Language Arts test. Students must respond in English; student responses may not be translated.

Maryland

Description

There are special rules that apply to the participation of English Language Learners (ELLs) in the MSA-Reading and the Mod-MSA-Reading, as follows: ELL students in their first year of enrollment in a U.S. school may substitute their score on the English Language Proficiency Test for the MSA-Reading or the Mod-MSA-Reading test. ELL students must participate in the MSA-Reading or the Mod-MSA-Reading test starting in their second year of enrollment in a U.S. school; There are special rules that apply to the participation of English language learners (ELLs) in the MSA-Math and the Mod-MSA-Math, as follows: For the MSA-Math and Mod-MSA-Math, ELL students must participate in MSA-Math or Mod-MSA-Math regardless of how recently they entered the U.S. educational system. For ELL students in their first year of enrollment in a U.S. school, "participation" in the MSA-Math or the Mod-MSA-Math is defined as allowing the student to attempt the test for at least 20 minutes. If, after 20 minutes, the TE determines in his or her professional judgment that the student does not possess sufficient English fluency to be able to continue testing, the test administration for that student may be concluded at that time.

Accommodations1

Accommodations for assessment of students with disabilities (i.e., students having an Individualized Education Program or a Section 504 Plan) and students who are English language learners (ELL) had to be approved and documented according to the procedures and requirements outlined in the document entitled "Maryland Accommodations Manual: A Guide to Selecting, Administrating, and Evaluating the Use of Accommodations for Instruction and Assessment" (MAM). A copy of the most recent edition of this document is available electronically on the LAC and STC web pages at https://docushare.msde.state.md.us/docushare

Michigan

Description

Students should only use accommodations on state assessments if 1) the accommodation is documented in the IEP, Section 504 Plan, or ELL plan 2) the accommodation is routinely used as part of the student's daily instruction, 3) the student is proficient in using the accommodation, and 4) the effectiveness of the accommodation(s) has been determined prior to use on an assessment.

Accommodations1

Standard Accommodations for ELL students on MEAP or MEAP-Access2:
Equipment/Materials:
Audio/Video Equipment:
MEAP-Access does not offer video translated versions.
Dictionary/Glossary: Use of bilingual word-for-word non-electronic translation glossary for English language learners.
Visual organizers: Use of acetate color shield, highlighters, highlighter tape, page flag, and reading guides on test booklets.
Other: Use of rulers as provided by the state.

Presentation:
Administration by Others:
Qualified person familiar to the student administers the assessment (e.g., Special Education teacher, Bilingual/ESL staff).
Native Language Translation of Directions and/or Items:
Reading all assessment directions in student's native language (student must be dominant in that native language; and student's English proficiency is determined to be basic or lower intermediate; and student receives bilingual instruction in their native language for the maintenance of that language); Reading content and questions in the student's native language (Mathematics, Social Studies, Science and Writing; student must be dominant in a native language other than English; and student's English proficiency is determined to be basic or lower intermediate; and student receives bilingual instruction in that native language for the maintenance of that language).
Prompt/Encourage Student: Teacher provides visual, auditory, or physical cues to student to begin, maintain, or finish task.
Read Aloud Questions: Reading aloud the Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies assessments with individual students or in small groups of no more than 5 students (MEAP-Access requires the use of reader scripts).
Read/Re-read/Clarify Directions: Assessment directions (teachers may emphasize key words in directions, teachers may repeat directions exactly as worded in administrator manual, student may restate directions in his/her words, student may ask for clarification of directions).
Sign interpret directions: Directions provided using sign language (American Sign Language (ASL) or Exact English).

Response:
Pointing:
Student points to answers.
Write in Test Booklet: Student writes directly in assessment booklet (transferred to answer document by teacher).

Scheduling/Timing:
Extended Time:
Extended assessment time.
Flexible scheduling: Administer the parts within a content area in any order.
Time beneficial to student: Administration of the assessment at a time most beneficial to the student, with appropriate supervision.
With breaks: Frequent supervised breaks; Method of informing students of remaining time (e.g., clock or timer).

Setting:
Increase/decrease opportunity for movement:
Able to move, stand or pace during assessment in a manner where others' work cannot be seen and is not distracting to others (e.g., kneeling, constant movement).
Individual: Administration of the assessment individually or in a small group.
Seat location/proximity:
Placement of student where he/she is most comfortable (e.g., front of the room, back of the room); Placement of teacher/proctor near student.
Separate room/Minimize distractions: Administration of the assessment in an alternate education setting (in school) with appropriate supervision (e.g., Bilingual/English as a second language setting, special education setting, in a distraction free space or alternate location such as separate room or location within room).

Minnesota

Accommodations1

English learners must be coded LEP in MARSS in order to use an accommodation on the state assessments. Students with an IEP or 504 Plan are also eligible to receive accommodations. Districts must ensure that all accommodations received by students are justified and supported by data teachers collect during instruction. ELs may be provided any appropriate accommodations from Tables 12 and 13. If an EL has an IEP or 504 Plan, refer to the tables of accommodations in Chapter 5 in addition to the accommodations in Tables 12 and 13. For ELs, the accommodations providing linguistic support may be combined with accommodations for students with disabilities. When an eligible EL demonstrates the need for an accommodation, it must be provided as long as it does not invalidate the assessment.

Explanation of Accommodations for English Learners
Word-to-word dual-language dictionary:
A word-to-word dual-language dictionary is not allowed for the Mathematics BST, but is permitted on the Mathematics MCA, Mathematics MCA-Modified and Science MCA.
Extended testing time (same day) for the TEAE is available to ELs with an IEP or 504 Plan. Other EL students must finish the segment(s) within the time allowed.
Scripts or accommodated audio for grades 5–8 Mathematics MCA-Modified, Science MCA and Mathematics GRAD retest may be provided to ELs who need them. Full accommodated audio is incorporated into the accommodated form of each test. A student who needs the script or accommodated audio in conjunction with the online assessment must be assigned an accommodated form during test session set-up in PearsonAccess.
The accommodated audio differs from the regular audio because it not only reads all of the questions and answer choices, but also reads all of the labels, graphs and charts. The accommodated audio may be a heavy language load that may not be beneficial for all English Learners. Only a small number of students typically need the accommodated audio or script; the default should be the regular audio. Script for Mathematics MCA or grade 11 MCA-Modified (on CD or read to student) may be provided to English learners. Mathematics scripts (MS) and CDs (MC) are keyed to a corresponding test book.
Tape recording a reading test may be done in individual testing settings. The student may read the reading test into a tape recorder. The student may replay the tape as the test is taken. Recording should be done independently by the student without the Test Monitor providing verbal or non-verbal prompts.
Translated directions and writing prompts (oral, written or ASL) in first language. For TEAE, ASL is allowed only for writing prompts.
Voice feedback devices or whisper phones allow students to vocalize as they read and work problems. The use of whisper phones must not be audible to other students.

North Carolinant>

Description

To determine student participation in the NCEXTEND2 EOG for reading comprehension, mathematics, and/or science the following eligibility requirements must be considered: the student, if identified as limited English Proficient (LEP), must also have a current IEP.

North Dakota

 

Ohio

 

Oklahoma

 

Pennsylvania

Description

Are ELLs required to take the PSSA or PSSA-M?
In 2004, the USDE released guidance on participation of LEP students (ELLs) in state assessments. This flexibility allows ELL students in their first year of enrollment in U.S. schools an option of taking the Reading PSSA. A student's enrollment in a school in Puerto Rico is not to be considered as enrollment in a U.S. school; Those ELLs who fall into the first category (ELL and enrolled in a U.S. school after May 7, 2010), are considered to be in their first year in a U.S. school and are not required to take the PSSA Reading (grades 3-8 and 11) or PSSA Writing (grades 5, 8, and 11) tests; All ELLs are required to participate in the Mathematics PSSA (grades 3-8 and 11) or PSSA-M (Grades 4-8 and 11) and the Science PSSA (grades 4, 8, and 11), with accommodations as appropriate (see below).

Accommodations1

What accommodations are allowable for ELLs?
Three separate accommodations are allowed:
1. Word-to word translation dictionaries, without definitions and without pictures (for Mathematics PSSA, PSSA-M, Keystone Algebra and the Science PSSA, PSSA-M, or Keystone Biology only; not for any part of the Reading PSSA & PSSA-M, Keystone Literature test or on any part of the Writing PSSA and Keystone English Composition tests). 2. Qualified interpreters/sight translators (for Mathematics PSSA, PSSA-M, Keystone Algebra and Science PSSA, PSSA-M, Keystone Biology only; not for any part of the Reading PSSA test, Keystone Literature Exam or on any part of the Writing PSSA, Keystone English Composition (except for the essay prompts on the PSSA Writing, Keystone English Composition tests). 3. Spanish/English Mathematics, Science, Algebra, and Biology tests

Is a Spanish Version of the PSSA available for Mathematics for Grades 3-8 and 11, for Mathematics PSSA-M, for Grades 4-8 and 11, for Science for Grades 4, 8, and 11, for Algebra and Biology Keystone paper/pencil exams?
Yes. A Spanish version of each Mathematics PSSA, PSSA-M, Science PSSA, Science PSSA-M, Algebra, and Biology Keystone paper/pencil exams is available for students who have been enrolled in schools in the United States for fewer than three years. The local educational agency may make a determination to assess students with this accommodation when the student is enrolled in U.S. schools for fewer than three years and has not yet reached a level of English language proficiency sufficient to yield valid and reliable information when assessed in English; It is recommended that Spanish language students be literate in their native language for this accommodation to be beneficial. However, the Spanish-language version of the assessment may be read aloud to an eligible ELL student who can benefit from receiving the assessment in Spanish (for example, an ELL with prior education in Spanish who is also dyslexic).

Tennessee

 

Texas

Description

Linguistically accommodated testing (LAT) administrations are required for immigrant English language learners (ELLs), including those served by special education, who meet participation criteria for mathematics, science, and reading/ELA tests in grades 3-8 and 10. The LAT process enables eligible immigrant ELLs to be assessed with linguistic accommodations that help them better understand the language used on the tests. When taking a LAT administration of TAKS-M, eligible students are able to receive accommodations that address both their special education needs and needs as immigrant ELLs. With the exception of the grade 10 TAKS-M ELA test, the regular TAKS-M booklets are used for LAT administrations of TAKS-M. Students who need a large-print version of the LAT TAKS-M test will use the large-print TAKS-M test.

Accommodations1

LAT Mathematics and Science Accommodations:
Allowable Accommodations Providing Indirect Linguistic Support:
Clarification of test directions; Breaks at request of student.
Allowable Accommodations Providing Direct Linguistic Support: Linguistic
simplification; Oral translation; Reading (decoding) assistance; Bilingual dictionary;
Bilingual glossary; English and Spanish tests side by side (grades 3-5).
LAT Reading Accommodations:
Allowable Accommodations Providing Indirect Linguistic Support:
Clarification of test directions; Breaks at request of student; Testing over two days.3
Allowable Accommodations Providing Direct Linguistic Support: Bilingual dictionary;
English dictionary; Reading aloud—word or phrase; Reading aloud—entire test item; Oral
Translation—word or phrase; Clarification—word or phrase.

Virginia

 

1For additional information about AA-MAS accommodations policies see Lazarus, Cormier, Crone, & Thurlow (2010).

2 Categories and definitions for accommodations were added, based on Lazarus et al. (2010).

3 A two-day LAT administration of a TAKS-M reading/ELA test is optional. The LPAC and ARD committee decide in advance whether the student should complete the test in one or two days.

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NCEO is supported primarily through a Cooperative Agreement (#H326G050007) with the Research to Practice Division, Office of Special Education Programs, U.S. Department of Education. Additional support for targeted projects, including those on LEP students, is provided by other federal and state agencies. Opinions expressed in this Web site do not necessarily reflect those of the U.S. Department of Education or Offices within it.

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Online Privacy Statement
This page was last updated on January 03, 2013

NCEO is supported primarily through a Cooperative Agreement (#H326G050007, #H326G110002) with the Research to Practice Division, Office of Special Education Programs, U.S. Department of Education. Additional support for targeted projects, including those on LEP students, is provided by other federal and state agencies. Opinions expressed in this Web site do not necessarily reflect those of the U.S. Department of Education or Offices within it.