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CEHD Research Day

CEHD Research Day showcases the impact of college research on our lives. Research Day 2018 was held Tuesday, March 27, in Memorial Hall at McNamara Alumni Center.

Research Day 2018 posters

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Education research and educational equity

Analyzing the Pathways of Women Head Coaches with Career Longevity in NCAA D-I Sport: A Nine-Factor Analysis

Author(s): Anna Baeth

The purpose of this study is to examine NCAA D-I women head coaches with career longevity of over twenty years as a function of nine factors: sport, institution, conference, institution endowment, win-loss record, playing experience, coaches ethnicity, coaches age, and coaches family type. Empirical and theoretical studies have long documented the drastic decline and startling stagnation of the number of women in collegiate coaching positions. The significant loss of women coaches over the past 45 years has created an absence of women in positions of power and female role models in sport in the United States. Although a number of studies have investigated which women leave the coaching profession, this paper explores which women are most able to sustain themselves within the work of coaching. Surveying every female coach of an NCAA D-I sport program who has been a head coach for 20 years or longer to determine which factors are most influential (sport, institution endowment, and playing experience) in allowing certain women to sustain themselves in the profession of coaching.

Barriers and Solutions to Preschool Attendance in Low-Income Families

Author(s): Amy Susman-Stillman, Michelle Englund, Karen Storm and Ann Bailey

Preschool attendance problems negatively impact children’s school readiness skills and future school attendance. Parents are critical to preschoolers’ attendance. This study explored parental barriers and solutions to preschool attendance in low-income families. School-district administrative data from a racially/ethnically diverse sample of parents with children attending the district’s half-day preschool program were obtained (N = 111). Subsamples of parents participated in a phone interview and follow-up, in-person interview. Parents valued early learning and preschool. Children missed school due to illness, problems with child care, transportation, and family life. Differences in attendance rates appeared by school, family demographics, and race/ethnicity. African-Americans and Hispanics experienced more barriers than Whites and Asians, and were more likely to miss school because of illness and medical appointments. Hispanics were more likely to miss for vacation. Parents noted a lack of social connection with other parents in the school/neighborhood, making seeking help to resolve attendance barriers difficult.

Characterizing the Features of Instruction in Community College Algebra Courses

Author(s): Dexter Lim, Irene Duranczyk, Laura Watkins, Vilma Mesa, April Ström, and Nidhi Kohli

There are various features of instruction in intermediate and college level algebra courses in community colleges. Working on a NSF-funded research project (Watkins, Duranczyk, Mesa, Ström, & Kohli, 2016) investigating instruction and interactions in ​community college algebra courses​, I am assisting in the development of Evaluating Quality of Instruction in Postsecondary Mathematics (EQIPM) by utilizing the Instructional Triangle while adapting codes from the Mathematical Quality of Instruction (MQI) a video analysis tool used in K-6 settings (Learning Mathematics for Teaching Project, 2011) and the Quality of Instructional Practices in Algebra (QIPA), an algebra-specific observational instrument developed from MQI to analyze the procedural elements of high school algebra course (Litke, 2015). Video recorded classroom instruction was used in developing the EQIPM in addressing various features of classroom instruction that were previously missing in our earlier versions of instrument. The development resulted in creating EQIPM with 15 quality instructional characteristics. This poster presents the instrument and its development, the challenges during development and its calibration. We collected pilot data from 6 community college algebra instructors with approximately 160 students.

Author(s): B. Bresina, K. Wagner, K. McMaster, P. Kendeou, and the TeLCI and ELCII Teams

Our group is developing the Technology-Based Early Language Comprehension Intervention (TeLCI) and the Early Language Comprehension Individualized Instruction (ELCII). Our goal in both of these projects is to create interactive learning software that fits within a Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (MTSS) framework. ELCII is designed as Tier 1 instruction for kindergarten. Whole classrooms will interact with ELCII, a pedagogical agent, on a touch screen and learn about inference making through video modules. TeLCI is designed as a Tier 2 intervention in which select students will complete modules where TeLCI, a pedagogical agent, leads them through a series of inference questions that can be scaffolded based on student responses. Through our research, we are also developing inferencing assessments based on similar video models. This poster will describe the theoretical underpinnings of both projects and describe the progress we have made in field testing our modules and developing our assessments.

Development of Participant STEM Voice Through Informal Astronomy

Author(s): Robert J. Palmer, Felicia Leammukda, Sarah Komperud, Gillian Roehrig, and Barbara Billington

This mixed methods research project explores the impacts of an informal astronomy curriculum known as Skynet Junior Scholars (SJS) on the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) voice of participants. The SJS curriculum engages students in STEM learning through astronomy, which many students are interested in, but have limited opportunity to study in great depth. We propose that the SJS program would facilitate the expression of a positive and unique STEM voice for participants. This study also addresses the need to increase opportunities for underrepresented and underserved students in STEM. Youth participants targeted in this study include members of groups traditionally underrepresented in STEM fields, including racial minorities and families from low socioeconomic status.

Initial findings indicate this model appears to be effective in facilitating the expression of STEM voice for middle school students from groups traditionally underrepresented in STEM. We are applying social network analysis in the form of two mode (affiliation) matrices to study student interactions within discussion threads in the SJS forum to provide supporting data regarding STEM voice. Completion of self-directed tasks also indicate participant engagement in activities that allow them many opportunities to express their individual STEM voice.

Diploma Option, Graduation Requirements and Exit Exam for Youth With Disabilities: Trends from 2003 to 2017

Author(s): David Johnson, Martha Thurlow, Xueqin Qian, and Lindsay Anderson

Despite the fact that high school graduation rates inched up for the fourth year in a row from 2011-2015, students with disabilities continue to lag behind. According to the most recent Building Grad Nation report (2017), 33 states reported graduation rate for students with disabilities below 70% and nearly half of these 33 states had a graduation rate of 60%. The purpose of this study is to understand the diploma options and exit exam requirements for students with disabilities in 50 states in the U.S. from 2003 to 2017 and how these policies may be related to graduation rate. We analyzed longitudinal data collected from 50 states and the District of Columbia on their diploma option and exit exam for students with disabilities. Data were collected in 2003, 2007, 2011, and 2017. Our results show that array of diploma options offered to students with disabilities vary greatly by states. The percentage of states that have increased graduation requirements has declined from 2011(66%) to 2017 (35%). There is an increasing trend for states to offer the same diploma option to both students with and without disabilities. Finally, there is a decrease in number of states that requires exit exams in order to receive a regular high school diploma.

The "Driver- Passenger" Effect in Head Mounter Virtual Reality

Author(s): Elisheva Savvateev and Hayley Pierce-Ramsdell

Motion sickness is a commonly experienced phenomenon that many commuters face on a daily basis. For passengers, research has shown that the likelihood of them being what is commonly referred to as “carsick” is much greater than for the driver of the vehicle (Dong, Yoshida, & Stoffregen, 2011). Research on role-related motion sickness susceptibility during vehicle travel has been shown in participants driving an actual vehicle, but also when the driving is immersed in a virtual environment. Participants in this study were exposed to a virtual reality driving video game for up to fifteen minutes. The thirty-six participants in this study were assigned to either a Driver or Passenger role. The Driver and Passenger participants completed their sessions independently, but were yoked into Driver-Passenger pairs for the data analysis. Within each pair, the Driver drove the vehicle through a virtual environment while the system recorded the video from the driver’s perspective. The Passenger participant in the pair then watched the previously recorded video from the paired Driver for up to fifteen minutes. The Passenger did not control the vehicle, but could look around the virtual environment. When the participant completed the fifteen minute session or discontinued before time expired, they completed a Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ). The SSQ is used to assess the degree to which common symptoms of motion sickness affect the participant and can be analyzed to determine whether a person was motion sick following the end of their virtual experience. We are currently in the stage of data collection for this study. We expect our results to build upon findings such as Munafo, Diedrick & Stoffregen (2017) which found that passengers are more likely to experience the symptoms of motion sickness during game play.

Author(s): K. Wagner, E. Lam, B. Bresina, S. Birinci, N. Weber, and K. McMaster

The Data-Based Instruction: Tools, Learning, and Collaborative Support (DBI-TLC) project was an IES Goal 2 funded research project. Through three funded years, and a no-cost extension, we created and piloted a professional development system aimed at giving teachers the skills and support to implement a data-based approach to intensive instruction for early writing. Students in the study were in grades 1-3 and identified as being at-risk for, or with disabilities that affect early writing. This poster will briefly summarize some of the promising findings that emerged from our time working with a small group of teachers for this pilot study. We will also describe our current project in which we are scaling-up the system we developed in DBI-TLC to The Early Writing Project, an IES Goal 3 funded project. We will be training three cohorts of teachers over a three year period (n = 140). Our goal is to find out if our professional development and coaching system increases teacher knowledge and skills, efficacy for teaching writing, and ultimately improves student outcomes on a large scale.

Examining First Year Science Teachers’ Beliefs About Culturally Relevant Teaching

Author(s): Preethi Titu, Hillary A. Barron, and Julie C. Brown

In recent decades, schools in most Western countries, including the United States, have become increasingly culturally diverse and as global migration continues to rise, cultural diversity in schools will continue to grow worldwide (UNESCO, 2004). Though research addressing equitable science teaching and practices is emerging, comparatively little attention has been given to culturally relevant teaching in science settings. The purpose of this study was to explore inservice secondary science teachers’ beliefs about culturally relevant science teaching in their first year as a classroom teacher. In this single embedded case study, we analyzed two primary data sources: teacher responses during post-observation debrief conversations conducted twice during the year and semi-structured interviews conducted throughout the year. The participants (n=8) were first year classroom teachers who were part of a larger National Science Foundation research project focused on improving the induction experiences of beginning science teachers working in high-need schools. Findings indicate that the teachers’ beliefs centered around three themes: 1) beliefs about predominant features of culturally relevant teaching, 2) beliefs about aspects of culturally relevant teaching that are difficult to implement, and 3) beliefs about aspects of culturally relevant teaching that are easier to implement.

Author(s): A.E. Bailey, K. Mayer, and A.R. Susman-Stillman

The Minnesota Department of Human Services funded the development of an Infant Toddler Specialist Network (ITSN). The intent of the ITSN is to provide relationship-based coaching, technical assistance, and consultation to licensed childcare providers throughout Minnesota, who want to enhance and improve their knowledge of and skills with providing high quality services for infants and toddlers. The Center for Inclusive Child Care has hired coaches to work with childcare providers to meet the goals of the network. The evaluation of the ITSN is both formative and summative and includes a mixed-methods approach. In Year 1, data demonstrate that coaches have extensive knowledge of infant toddler content and want additional training on cultural responsiveness and trauma-informed care. Coaches recognize the need for development of specific coaching skills, such as active listening and cultural competency. Childcare providers receive, on average, six visits from their assigned coach and overwhelmingly request support in the area of teaching and relationship development with children. Additional requests for support are in the areas of professionalism, relationships with families, assessment and planning, and health and wellness. Future data will be collected from coaches, childcare providers, and administrative personnel to assess the fidelity of implementation of the ITSN.

First Language Use in English Learning High School Science Class

Author(s): Rebecca Konz

This study is framed by initiatives to promote multilingual education in Minnesota schools. The case presented here is of two sections of a co-taught chemistry unit at a large urban high school. The data presented here is preliminary exploratory data for a larger ongoing project. The question is about how EL students respond to science prompts when given the opportunity to use both their native language and English. One section of the class was used as a control and the other was told to use both their home language and English. Of the six science prompts given be the teachers, three included the directions to use both the students’ home language and English. All responses were transcribed, including translations of Karen, Hmong, Somali, Nepali and Spanish. Not all students recorded responses, which were required as part of the coursework. A t-test comparison of student responses, graded on a rubric for science conceptual accuracy, showed no significant difference between the two sections. Based on these preliminary findings, not all students appear to want to use their native language when responding to science prompts.

Author(s): Jeff Henning-Smith

The purpose of this paper was to examine the use of a gradual release of responsibility (GRR) model (Pearson & Gallagher, 1983) embedded in a co-teaching framework (Heck & Bacharach, 2016) during the student-teaching portion of an alternative teaching licensure program. The goal was to improve an already existing student-teacher field experience summer residency program. The author has chosen to take up the challenge set forth by Vagle (2012) and engage with his first plea to educators to “move away from a developmentally responsive vision to a contingently and recursively relational vision” (p. 12). The author draws a parallel critique of stage development with a similar critique around the assumptions and programmatic decisions that focus on the development of preservice teachers.  In order to confront the pervasiveness of stage development, the paper highlights two theorists and their beliefs in the need for individuality to be recognized and honored. Gadamer’s (1975) concept of fore-meaning and Bakhtin’s (1993) concept of answerability are useful theoretical tools to both see and respond to each individual teacher candidate as a unique person with unique experiences, strengths, and needs, as a way to push against the creation of programmatic developmental norms, assumptions, and expectations. By utilizing a critical stance on the normative assumptions of development, the author will attempt to explicate the ways in which development is at work in an alternative teacher licensure program as a means to offer insights for other programs around the country.

Author(s): Allyson Candee, Kristi Liu, Darrell Peterson, Yi-Chen Wu, Janet Stewart, and Sheryl Lazarus

The National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO) in the Institute on Community Integration (ICI) is partnering with the state of West Virginia to develop innovative online professional development. The Improving Instruction for ELs Through Improved Accessibility Decisions project seeks to support educators' ability to select, implement, and evaluate instructional supports and assessment accommodations for ELs, including ELs with disabilities.

Four modules address steps educators progress through: 1) Thinking student needs, 2) Making and implementing instructional support decisions, 3) Making and implementing assessment accommodations decisions, and 4) Pulling it all together. The ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation) process, an evidence-based, dynamic training and development model, is being used to develop the modules.

Data from educators and students will be used to evaluate module effectiveness, including measures of: a) changes to educators' knowledge, skills, and decision-making, b) EL student perceptions of accessibility, and c) year-end content area and English proficiency outcomes.

Results will be used to refine the modules for use in West Virginia and possible broader, multi-state dissemination. More distally, findings will provide key information on effectively promoting accessibility and accommodations decision making for educators of ELs via professional development, system-building (i.e., school and district planning), and policy making.

Author(s): Erin P. Sugrue

This paper presents the results of a mixed methods study of moral injury among K-12 educators in an urban school district in the Midwest. Moral injury refers to the lasting psychological and existential harm that occurs when an individual perpetrates or witnesses acts that violate deeply held moral beliefs. Moral injury is relevant to the public education context due to the morally-complex and high-stakes natures of the settings in which educators work and the ethically-challenging actions they are often required to take. Results demonstrate that professionals exhibit levels of moral injury similar to those experienced by military veterans and child protective services professionals. In addition, professionals in highly racially and economically segregated schools were most likely to report experiences of moral injury. Identifying and addressing sources of moral injury is critical for a just and moral education system.

Racial Underrepresentation in Law Enforcement and the Role of Higher Ed

Author(s): Bill Woodson

While African Americans are overrepresented in Minnesota police shootings and officer-involved fatalities, they are underrepresented in Minnesota law enforcement. The reasons why are complex, interconnected, grounded in historical racial barriers and racist practices, and reinforced by current obstacles such as awareness, concerns about the legitimacy of the law-enforcement function, and academic credentialing. Scholars and law-enforcement leaders agree that a comprehensive effort to reestablish police legitimacy and bolster public confidence must include increasing diversity representation to better match the populations being served (President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing, 2015; Bayley, 2002). The literature suggests that there is both precedence and rationale for higher education to be an active partner in expanding and preparing talent pools when community demands for qualified talent are not being met. ROTC and STEM are two examples of partnerships and proactive collaborations between higher education and future employers. My research focuses on the lived experience of African-American men and women who have chosen to pursue careers as police officers in Minnesota. This research is expected to yield insights that can help close the racial representation gap in Minnesota law enforcement. A participatory research lens is used to enhance the legitimacy and relevance of these findings.

SciGirls CODE: A National Connected Learning Model to Integrate Computing into Informal STEM Learning with Middle School Girls

Author(s): C. Scharber, S. Barksdale, Y. Chang, A. Constantine, J. Englund, L. Peterson, and R. Sivaraj

The SciGirls CODE project is funded by NSF’s STEM + Computing Partnerships (STEM + C) program. SciGirls CODE is a two-year project that uses the principles of connected learning with 16 outreach partners around the country to provide 160+ girls and their educators with computational thinking and coding skills. The 9-month curriculum is comprised of three strands—e-textiles and wearable tech, robotics, and mobile app development; role model training for female technology professionals; professional development for STEM educators; and a research component that investigates the ways computational learning experiences impact the development of computational thinking as well as interest in and attitudes toward computer science. This study uses an interpretive, embedded multi-case study design. Computational participation is the conceptual framework and computational thinking operationalizes the data collection and analysis strategies (Kafai & Burke, 2014). Data sources include pre/post program surveys, artifact-based interviews/video shorts, observations, and interviews. SciGirls CODE is collaboration between the Twin Cities Public Television (TPT), the National Girls Collaborative Project, and the University of Minnesota.

Secondary Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge and Misunderstandings of Statistical Models

Author(s): Michael D. Huberty, Andrew Zieffler, Robert delMas, and Nicola Justice

Statistical modeling has been identified by several countries as part of their mathematics curriculum standards for secondary students. However, many secondary mathematics teachers have minimal preparation for teaching statistical modeling. Simulation-based methods for teaching statistical inference have been touted as effective for helping students develop authentic understanding of statistical modeling and inference. This research used problem-solving interviews designed to explore teachers' understanding of statistical models, through the creation and evaluation of statistical models. The interviews were conducted with four secondary teachers who were teaching an undergraduate-level simulation-based introductory statistics course (the CATALST curriculum) to secondary students. The results suggest that teachers were able to use the simulation-based methods effectively, yet had several misconceptions that may stem from their non-simulation-based statistics education. This research has implications for the professional development of teachers who plan to teach statistics using simulation-based methods.

Author(s): Valerie Barbaro

Although perhaps the most popular form of student-to-student interaction in an online class, the large group forum within the course’s learning management system (LMS) may be one of the least effective discussion methods for engaging students either socially or cognitively. Grounded in the Community of Inquiry model, this exploratory study combines content analysis with social network analysis and statistical methods to examine the association of discussion forum format to students’ demonstrated social and cognitive presences. This study includes both large- and small-group discussion forum formats from within the LMS as well as less traditional non-LMS formats. In total, six discussion forum formats are analyzed to assess which format encourages the greatest proportion of students to engage both with each other and with course content in more meaningful ways.

Author(s): Sheryl Lazarus, Kristin Liu, Terri Vandercook, and Martha Thurlow

TIES Center is a new national technical assistance center on inclusive practices and policies located at the National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO) in the Institute on Community Integration (ICI). Its purpose is to create sustainable changes in school and district educational systems so that students with significant cognitive disabilities can fully engage in the same instructional and non-instructional activities as their general education peers while being instructed in a way that meets individual learning needs. TIES stands for:

  • Increasing Time
  • Instructional Effectiveness
  • Engagement
  • State Support for Inclusive Practices
These four elements represents the complexity of systemic change needed to support increased student engagement and improved learning outcomes for students with significant cognitive disabilities. This poster presentation will highlight the knowledge development and research activities that TIES Center is conducting that will support sustainable change. It will also highlight how TIES Center will work intensively with several states and districts to develop and refine sustainable models of inclusive education for students with significant cognitive disabilities through the use of existing and new curriculum and instructional materials, and other resources.

Urban Mathematics and Equity Framed By an After-School Tutoring Program

Author(s): Elena Contreras Gullickson, Lesa M. Covington Clarkson, and Illana Livstrom

This critical ethnographic study looked at ways in which an after-school tutoring program helped to nurture urban mathematics and equity. Developing community, confidence, and academic identity, and improving mathematical literacy were just a few of the findings for how Prepare2Nspire (P2N) served marginalized scholars in North Minneapolis. P2N established learning communities comprised of one university undergraduate student, four eleventh-grade students and three eighth-grade students. Near-peer tutoring was cultivated in each of the communities through undergraduates tutoring eleventh graders who, in turn, tutored eighth graders. P2N places participants on an equitable level in terms of resources, additional support and access to quality tutoring and mentoring. Participants received tangible supplies including paper, pencils, rulers, graphing calculators, meals, gift cards and city bus passes. These tools and gifts made it possible for participants to attend P2N regularly. Intangibly, scholars received consistent support both in academic and non-academic ways from their tutors. Next, P2N pushed back at the idea that mathematics was done in solitude by collaborating and communicating their thinking. Tutors and scholars strengthened their skills and mathematical communication. Scholars gained transferable skills. P2N boasted pedagogical implications in regard to making mathematics education equitable across gender, SES, and ethnicity.

Author(s): Kristi Liu, Yi-Chen Wu, Linda Goldstone, Christopher Rogers, Deb Albus, and Erik Larson

Nine state departments of education and the National Center on Educational Outcomes are collaborating on a project (Data Informed Accessibility – Making Optimal Needs-based Decisions – DIAMOND) that is conducting several studies to inform the development of modules for educators to make decisions about accessibility and accommodations for all students. Several studies were conducted on teacher knowledge about accessibility and accommodations, the decision-making process, and what the data on accessibility and accommodations reveal. Summaries of an educator survey, online focus group, phone interviews with teachers, in-person demonstrations by teachers and students, and state data analyses will be provided, along with the implications of each for the development of online training modules. Study results showed most educators believed that accessibility and accommodations have a positive impact on student performance; special educators had more experience with these than other educators. Still, there was considerable confusion about the links between instruction and assessment accessibility and accommodations and how to make decisions for individual students. The results from state-level and student-level data analyses indicated considerable variation within and across states in the provision of accessibility and accommodations. The implications of each of the results for the form and function of the module will be described.

Author(s): Timothy J. Lensmire

My poster highlights key stories and arguments in my recent book, White Folks: Race and Identity in Rural America (Routledge). My book is grounded in the experiences of eight people from a small rural community in Wisconsin—the community in which I was born and raised. Drawing on in-depth interviews with Delores, Frank, William, Erin, Robert, Libby, and Stan, as well as on my own experiences, I explore how white people learn to be ‘white’ and how white racial identities are dependent on people of color, even in situations where white people have little or no contact with racial others. The portrait of white people in my book highlights how our relations to people of color and their cultures are seldom simple and are characterized not just by fear and rejection, but also by attraction, envy, and desire. I illustrate the profound ambivalence that has characterized white people’s thinking and feeling in relation to people of color for at least the last two hundred years in the United States. There is nothing smooth about the souls of white folks.

Autism and Developmental Disabilities

Author(s): Julie E.D. Kramme, Jennifer Hall-Lande, Emma Jackson, and Amy Hewitt

This national review of Medicaid Home and Community-Based Services waivers was updated to examine prevalence of waivers that are specifically designed to serve people with autism, as well as waivers with a related clause that includes autism. Waivers are a major way that people with autism receive services to support living and working in the community. Eligibility criteria and services covered on autism-specific waivers for children and adults were also examined to draw conclusions about the availability of services.

Characterizing normative longitudinal trajectories of restricted and repetitive behaviors in infants, toddlers, and preschoolers

Author(s): R. Sifre, C. Lasch, J.J. Wolff, and J.T. Elison

Background: Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors (RRBs), which include repetitive motor mannerisms/stereotypies, rigid adherence to routines, insistence on sameness behaviors, and circumscribed interests are common features in young children diagnosed with ASD and various anxiety disorders (Bodfish et al., 2000). However, they can also be normative and transient in toddlers and preschool aged children. The Repetitive Behavior Scales for Early Childhood (RBS-EC) is a 34-item parent-report questionnaire designed to capture normative variation in RRBs in toddlers and young children. To compliment and extend an initial psychometric validation of the measure (Wolff, Boyd, & Elison, 2016), we examined longitudinal change across the infant, toddler, and preschool age range in the total composite score and in each individual subscale of the measure: Repetitive Motor, Ritual and Routine, Restricted Behavior, and Self-directed behavior. We hypothesized that patterns of longitudinal change would vary by subscale.

Methods: Parents of typically developing toddlers between 7-44 months (M=20.7, SD=7.8) were administered the RBS-EC over multiple time points. Complete/valid data were collected from 212 toddlers (107 with three or more data points), yielding a total of 610 data points (585 collected before 36 months of age). Linear mixed-effects modeling was used to estimate longitudinal change in RRBs, with age as the primary fixed factor, and sex and birthweight as potential covariates. Random effects for age were included to account for non-independence among participants. Likelihood Ratio Testing was used to test significant changes over time, and Maximum Likelihood Estimation was used to adopt the fixed- and random-effect structure that best fit the data.

Results: Likelihood ratio testing indicated that age significantly predicted RRBs for the RBS-EC Composite score, and for each of its four subscales (all p’s <.0001). While composite RBS-EC scores decreased over toddlerhood (Fig 1a), the relationship between age and outcomes varied across subscales: Self-Directed, Repetitive Motor, and Restricted Interests behaviors decreased over time (Figs 1b-1d), while Ritual and Routine behaviors increased until roughly two years of age, before declining (Fig 1e). There was an effect of Sex for the Restricted Interest behaviors, with boys demonstrating more restricted play behaviors at all ages. The effect of Sex interacted with time for Self-directed, Repetitive Motor, and Ritual and Routine behaviors: While boys and girls show similar levels of these behaviors early in development, girls show a steeper decline in these behaviors over time than boys.

Discussion: By analyzing parent-reports of RRBs measured repeatedly between 7-44 months in 212 children, we found that these behaviors change significantly over this time period. Each subscale was characterized by a distinct longitudinal profile, adding further evidence that these subscales tap into separable constructs. Future studies will examine whether these trajectories predict quantitative autistic traits in the 2nd & 3rd year of life, and whether distinct profiles of change over time are associated with specific social and cognitive outcomes. Additional validation for the instrument will come from studies of infants at risk for adverse developmental outcomes.

Early temperament and developmental outcomes in infants at high risk for autism

Author(s): Angela Fenoglio, Sooyeon Sung, Jason J. Wolff, Kelly N. Botteron, Stephen R. Dager, Annette M. Estes, Heather C. Hazlett, Sarah J. Paterson, Robert T. Schultz, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Joseph Piven, and Jed T. Elison

A growing body of evidence suggests that the behaviors associated with autism emerge during the first year of life, including atypical temperamental profiles (Garon 2009; Clifford 2013). One widely-used measure, the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (IBQ-R), was devised using normative data and posited a 3-factor structure (Gartstein 2003). Subsequent studies suggest that this structure varies by sample characteristics such as cultural context (Gartstein 2005) or sociodemographic status (Bosquet Enlow 2016). Infant sibling studies have found that ASD is associated with a temperamental profile characterized by lower positive affect, higher negative affect, and lower effortful control, and that (HR) infants (infants with an older sibling with ASD) and low-risk (LR) control infants (without a family history of ASD) show group differences in temperament traits as well as the structure of higher-order temperament factors (Garon 2016).

In Study 1 we investigated the factor structure of the IBQ-R in HR and LR groups by comparing the fit of 3 models: two from the literature and one created via exploratory factor analysis. In Study 2, data from 497 infants were used to construct a structural equation model utilizing the best fitting factor structure from Study 1 for 6 & 12mo temperament data and a 24mo developmental outcome variable derived from measures of cognitive and adaptive functioning. Factor analyses indicate that a modified three-factor model from our EFA provides the best fit for this sample enriched for autism risk. SEM indicates that higher scores on Duration of Orienting at 12mo predicted lower scores on the developmental outcome for the HR group. The HR-ASD group also showed lower Positive Affectivity than both the HR-neg and LR groups at 6 and 12mo. This suggests that traditional 3-factor model of the IBQ-R may not be ideal for samples enriched for autism risk, and HR and LR groups show different patterns of associations between temperament factors and developmental outcome.

Author(s): James Houseworth, Renata Ticha, John Smith, and Roqayah Ajaj

Having opportunities for choice is an important component of self-determination, the ability of a person to make decisions about the parts of life that person wants to control (Abery & Stancliffe, 2003). More specifically, people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) have unique challenges to exerting choice and control over their lives. While there has been a big shift in where people with IDD live over the last 40 years, from large institutional settings to smaller and more individualized settings, their opportunities to make choices are still limited in some ways. This research explores the changes in living arrangements and opportunities to make choices over time as well as the relationship between the two. Further, we explore the differences and similarities in choice making for people with IDD between living with family and in small group homes, a topic that has not been widely explored.

Quantifying data quality in eye-tracking research with Rett syndrome

Author(s): Breanne Byiers, Kirsten Dahlrymple, and Jed Elison

Differences in data quality may drive between-group results when comparing eye tracking data from individuals with neurodevelopmental disabilities and typically-developing comparison groups. The goal of this study was to conduct a preliminary evaluation of differences in data quality between a sample of individuals with Rett syndrome (RTT), and a typically-developing comparison group (TYP). Six individuals with RTT (aged = 2:11-26:7 years) and five TYP controls (aged = 5:4-21:10 years) completed a task designed to quantitatively evaluate eye tracking data quality by calculating the average distance (in pixels) between a target stimulus and recorded gaze (gaze accuracy), and the variability in the gaze signal as calculated by the root mean square (RMS) of successive X and Y gaze coordinates (precision), across five successive target presentations. Distances in the RTT group were significantly higher than those from the control group. Precision for the X coordinates were not significantly different, whereas precision for Y coordinates was lower in the RTT group. These results support the need for objective quantification of data quality in eye tracking research. Additional work is needed to determine the degree to which quality differences affect key eye tracking variables.

Telling a story to policy makers about long-term supports and services for people with IDD - what ways to present the same data are most compelling?

Author(s): Heidi Eschenbacher

The Residential Information Systems Project (RISP) is a longitudinal project about the supports and services that people with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities receive through their state in the United States. It is a longitudinal study that is widely used by policy makers and advocates. When providing data about the population served, there are different ways that we can use the data to convey a similar message. The three options will be population per 100,000 of the general population, population proportions, and a third metric. This poster and feedback survey will ask visitors to rank which of three options to present the same RISP data is most informative. It will also interpret the data to reveal how different presentation of the same data can shift story being told from the research results that could affect the framing of policy and practice.

Author(s): Alyssa Merbler, Breanne Byiers, Chantel Barney, and Frank Symons

There are conflicting reports about pain in Rett syndrome (RTT), as diagnostic criteria and case reports reference pain insensitivity (Hagberg, 2002), but there is evidence of behavior consistent with pain expression (Barney, Feyma, Beisang, & Symons, 2015). The current ‘gold standard’ for determining the presence of pain remains verbal self-report, yet most individuals with RTT have severe communication impairment. Our purpose was to modify the Pain and Discomfort Scales (PADS; Bodfish, Harper, Deacon, & Symons, 2001), an observational coding system designed to detect pain/discomfort related behaviors, to capture behavioral reactivity during a modified quantitative sensory test (mQST) in 20 participants with RTT. Reactivity behaviors were scored individually (e.g. flinch) or as a behavior classes (e.g. vocalizations). There was a moderate to strong positive correlation between both methods for total reactivity and reactivity for each stimulus, except pressure. Both methods captured individual response pattern variability. Coding by behavior class significantly reduced training time and the time needed to code each video, saving resources. Overall, both methods captured pain- and discomfort-related behavior, and scoring behavior classes may be sufficient to describe pain-and discomfort in RTT. This method may provide a way to investigate somatosensory and nociceptive function in RTT.

Children's Mental Health and Welfare

Author(s): Rhiannon D. Williams, PhD, Gretchen J. Buchanan, MA, Zihui Lu, PhD, and Lynne M. Borden, PhD

Strong families nurture and support each family member and attempt to maintain an equilibrium, drawing upon their individual and collective knowledge and skills to navigate life together. For this poster, we use the term “strong” to portray how families incorporate optimism, hope, and existing assets when they face challenges and solve problems. All families have strengths as well as spaces of potential growth; in fact, the strengths are developed over time and are usually the result of challenges (DeFrain & Asay, 2007). Families are complex and must be understood within numerous interdependent layers, including each individual family member, dyadic relationships, broader family functioning, and the culture in which they live (Rasbash, Jenkins, O’Connor, Tackett, & Reiss, 2011).

A theoretical framework regarding strong families as well as nine components that strong families typically possess was developed based upon an extensive literature review. Including positive psychology, family systems theory, and inter-and intrapersonal intelligence models the theoretical framework conceptualizes the idea of a strong family as one that must be understood in context, including the context of the individual, their relationships, the broader family unit, and the societal context (Bronfenbrenner, 1994; Constantine, 2006; Gardner, 1983; Linley et al., 2006).

Impact of Maltreatment on First-time Delinquency among South Korean Youth in Early and Mid-adolescence

Author(s): Minhae Cho

Using a nationally representative longitudinal data of South Korean youth from the Korean Child Youth Panel Survey (KCYPS), this study followed 2,275 students in the early adolescence cohort (approximately ages 11-15 years) and 2,272 students in the mid-adolescence cohort (approximately ages 14-18 years) to examine the impact of childhood maltreatment on first-time delinquency over 4 years. Discrete time survival analysis was employed to model time to youth’s first involvement in delinquency and to examine common and unique factors associated with the risk of delinquency. Results from the study found that there are significant differences in the influence of individual and contextual variables on the risk of delinquency between youth in the early and mid-adolescence. The results highlight a need to understand the unique experiences of youth who committed delinquency at different times of development using a multiple-systems framework. In addition, the findings of this study suggest variations in understanding the impact of childhood maltreatment on delinquent acts across cultures. By identifying culturally specific indicators associated with risks for delinquency with relation to maltreatment, this study informs the design of developmentally sensitive and culturally tailored preventive interventions for youth from different cultural backgrounds to promote their positive developmental trajectories.

Author(s): Jingchen Zhang and Zhuo Han

Combat deployment and exposure to traumatic events may impair military parents’ capacities to respond effectively to children’s emotions due to their deficit in emotion regulation, which is especially salient among male service members postdeployment. Evidence-based parenting programs have been developed to improve the parenting practices for military families, however, little is known about the role of parents’ emotion regulation on the effectiveness of the parenting program. This study examined the effects of a randomized controlled trial, After Deployment, Adaptive Parenting Tools (ADAPT), on observed emotion-related parenting, and the moderating role of self-reported emotion regulation for male service members. This study used a subset of data from the ADAPT study, which included 181 fathers (M age = 37.76, SD = 6.42) in 2-­parent families who had been deployed to OIF/OEF/OND conflicts with at least one 4-12-year-old child. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the intent-to-treat effect of the ADAPT program on observed effective parenting 1 year post-baseline, and the moderating effect of self-reported emotion dysregulation at baseline. Results showed that the intervention did not directly improve fathers’ observed parenting relative to the control group. However, the intervention did significantly reduce observed reactivity/coercion and distress avoidance among fathers with above average self-reported difficulties in emotion regulation at baseline.

Parents' Perspective and Role in Involving Nonparental Adults in Childrearing

Author(s): Amber Anderson, Angela Keyzers, and Lindsey Weiler

Youths’ relationships with adults are inextricably linked to positive youth development, social capital, and upward mobility. Adult mentors can be role models, sources of guidance and inspiration, and bridges to resources that would otherwise be unavailable. Unfortunately, disparities exist and many children reach adulthood without the vital support of even a single mentor. Because parents are often the primary gatekeepers to youths’ social support networks, we hypothesize that parents’ attitudes towards, and capacity for, building connections for their children influence the quantity and quality of natural mentors in a child’s life. The purpose of this study was to assess caregivers’ perceived risks and benefits of natural mentoring relationships and to explore the barriers and facilitators to building a network of support for their children. Parents (N=55) in 8 focus groups conducted in Canada and the U.S. reported positive attitudes toward nonparental involvement in childrearing, variability in social network characteristics (i.e., size, quality, predictability), and barriers (e.g., pride, fear, lack of efficacy) and facilitators (e.g., sense of community, willpower to overcome fear) to fostering mentoring relationships for their children. Results hold important implications for professionals working with families to increase their connections with informal support and social capital.

Physiological Wake-Up Call in Post-Institutionalized Adolescents: Differences in the CAR for Early- versus Late-Adopted Children

Author(s): K.B. Leneman, M.R. Gunnar, C. Desjardins, and B. Donzella

Exposure to chronic stress early in life has been consistently associated with disruptions of physiological stress systems important for social and cognitive outcomes, especially the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is one measure of HPA axis functioning that is considered a type of physiological preparation for the day. While some work has been done examining the impact of early life stress (ELS) on the CAR, strict guidelines on measurement and analysis have since been published. Using updated guidelines, the present analysis examined CAR data from 277 adolescents between the ages of 7 and 15. Of these, 123 youth were adopted from institutional care settings before 60 months of age and were further divided into early-adopted (N = 66, 6 to 16 mos) and late-adopted (N = 57, 16-60 mos) groups. The CAR was shown to be blunted, evidenced by a flatter morning cortisol slope, for the late-adopted group when compared to the early- and non-adopted groups, with no difference in CAR between the early- and non-adopted groups. These results suggest that ELS is related to modified HPA axis functioning, but that being removed from adverse environments earlier in life might correspond with mitigated detrimental impacts.

Author(s): L. Renner, K. Piescher, and N. Mickelson

Child physical abuse is associated with a range of behavioral, social, and mental health problems. Yet, little is known about the effects of exposure to the physical abuse of a sibling. The purpose of this study was to explore differential outcomes for children who were allegedly physically abused and children who were exposed to child physical abuse. Specifically, do school attendance and achievement patterns differ for children who were involved with CPS due to physical abuse or exposure to alleged physical abuse compared to their peers who were not involved with CPS? Findings revealed that the attendance and achievement of children involved with CPS decreased at significantly faster rates than those of their peers who were not involved with CPS. Further examination revealed significant differences in attendance patterns for children who were exposed to the alleged physical abuse of another child in the household compared to their peers, and significant differences in math and reading achievement patterns of children who were the alleged victims of physical abuse compared to their peers.

Author(s): M. L. Engel, D. A. Winiarski, B. L. Reidy, and P. A. Brennan

Somatic complaints refer to physical symptoms (i.e. headache, abdominal pain) with no identifiable organic cause. These symptoms are particularly concerning early in life and have been associated with maladaptive developmental trajectories. The current study followed a sample of 185 children from preschool to school-age to examine the development of child somatic complaints and their relationships with maternal anxiety disorders, child internalizing symptoms, and cortisol reactivity. Results reveal that maternal anxiety significantly moderates the relationship between preschool and school age somatic complaints, as well as between cortisol reactivity and child somatic complaints. Specifically, preschool somatic complaints significantly predict school age somatic complaints, but only in cases where the mother has a history of anxiety disorders. Cortisol reactivity was significantly lower in children with somatic complaints, but only in cases where the mother also had a history of anxiety disorders. In all cases, regardless of maternal anxiety disorder history, preschool age somatic complaints predicted school age internalizing problems, above and beyond the effects of preschool internalizing problems. This study provides evidence of associations between child somatic complaints, cortisol reactivity, and maternal anxiety. Future work should continue to consider maternal psychopathology and child physiological factors when examining the development of childhood somatic complaints.

The Relationship between Adolescent Sport Participation and Sexual Aggression – Examining Perpetration and Victimization between Male and Females

Author(s): Jamie Cheever, MA and Marla Eisenberg, ScD MPH

A secondary data analysis was conducted with 2016 Minnesota Student Survey data gathered from 122,501 Minnesota 8th-, 9th-, and 11th-grade students. Sports participation was classified into three groups: 0 days of sports/week, 1-4 days of sports/week, and 5+ days of sports/week. Sexual aggression perpetration was characterized by committing sexual harassment and/or sexual coercion of a partner. Sexual aggression victimization was categorized by experiencing sexual harassment and/or being sexually coerced by a partner. Logistic regressions were stratified by sex and adjusted for multiple confounders (e.g., alcohol attitudes, positive development characteristics, and childhood sexual abuse).

Data analysis using odds ratios indicates sports participation is a significant risk factor for moderately-involved females for being a victim and a perpetrator of sexual harassment (OR=1.12, 95% CI 1.05-1.20 victim; OR=1.13, 95% CI 1.02-1.26 perpetrator), and a perpetrator of sexual coercion (OR=1.52, 95% CI 1.04-2.21), compared to students not involved in team sports. Males are more likely to be a victim of sexual harassment if highly-involved in sports (OR=1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.20) and to perpetrate sexual harassment if they have any involvement in athletics (OR=1.18, 95% CI 1.09-1.29 1-4 days; OR=1.28, 95% CI 1.19-1.38 5+ days), compared to non-sport peers. Highly-involved males are significantly more likely to coerce a partner into sex (OR=1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.67 5+days) and be coerced by a partner into sex (OR=1.22, 95% CI 1.05-1.42) than non-sport peers.

Results suggest athletic programs could be an important site to implement comprehensive sexual violence prevention programs targeted at individual actions as well as harmful cultural norms and systematic inequities.

Understanding the Disproportionate Involvement of American Indian Families in Child Welfare

Author(s): Wendy Haight, PhD, Cary Waubanascum, MSW, David Glesener, MSW, and Scott Marsalis

This scoping study addresses one of the most pressing and controversial issues facing child welfare policy makers and practitioners today: the dramatic overrepresentation of Indian families at all levels of the public child welfare system. Disparities persist despite the federal Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) of 1978 which requires active efforts to prevent removal of Indian children from their families and communities. Nonetheless, Indian children in the U.S. are 1.6 times more likely to be subjects of alleged maltreatment reports than are White children (Children’s Bureau, 2012) and have the highest rates of out-of-home care with 13 in care per 1000 compared to 4.2 for Whites (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2013). Our research question is: What is the current state of the published, peer reviewed empirical literature relevant to understanding the reasons for disparities in the involvement of American Indian families in the child welfare system?

Living Better, Living Longer

Asian College Students: How do Families Influence Young Adults' Financial Socialization?

Author(s): Yiting Li, Virginia Zuiker, Tai Mendenhall, and Catherine Montalto

Paying for college can be stressful. For Asian Americans, both students and parents work to figure this out. International Asian students enter the country with their parents' financial support already-established, but struggle to navigate complex economic policies relevant to them. Using family financial socialization theory (Gudmunson & Danes, 2011) as a guide, this study explored the financial issues between Asian American and International Asians. It is the first study to examine a large sample of Asians living in the United States by different citizenship statuses (n=671). Results show that Asian Americans perform better in financial knowledge, but with higher financial stress, than International Asians. Implications for financial professionals who work with Asian students and their parents are described in conclusion. Key words: Asian college students; family financial socialization; financial attitudes; financial behaviors; financial knowledge

Author(s): Wenxi Liu, Xianxiong Li, Shanying Xiong, Kun Tao, Qingwen Peng, and Zan Gao

To deliver effective physical activity (PA) interventions in Chinese college students, it is important for us to understand the PA correlates and behavior from social ecological perspective. However, no known studies used social ecological model in this area of inquiry in China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations among individual (PA self-efficacy and enjoyment), social environmental (support from parents and friends), and physical environmental outcomes (equipment, accessibility, and neighborhood safety) and physical activity behaviors in Chinese college students. A total of 887 college students from four universities in South and South-center China participated in this study. A battery of validated questionnaires was used to assess physical activity and psychological variables for this study. Findings suggest that Chinese college students were relatively physically active on a weekly basis. It appears that PA self-efficacy, enjoyment, and perceived social support may play important roles in physical activity promotion. Health professionals should help students successfully complete the tasks to cultivate self-efficacy, provide engaging and enjoyable activities, and facilitate friend or peer support in this population.

Creating safe space in a hostile places: the case of the Marathon of Afghanistan

Author(s): Madeleine Orr and Anna Baeth

Afghanistan is a country afflicted by protracted conflict, recurrent natural disasters, and social and economic inequality. Until 2001, the Taliban controlled the country, imposing strict religious laws and restrictions on women and girls’ participation in public life. Nearly twenty years later, little has improved in the way of access to education for women and girls, let alone sport opportunities, due to lingering cultural restrictions and widespread fear of conflict. The gender gap is most jarring in rural areas. Despite these challenges, a group of local and international volunteers in Bamyan, a province of Central Afghanistan, founded the country’s first public, outdoor, co-ed sport event: The Marathon of Afghanistan. The event has been met with equal measures of resistance and success, as the organizers have navigated the creation of a safe, inclusive event. Through structured interviews with organizers, local and international participants, and sponsoring organizations, a novel framework was developed to show the strategic planning considerations involved in creating safe space for an event in unstable or hostile environments. The framework combines the sport-for-development literature on safe space theory (Spaiij & Schulenkorf, 2013) and the issues management frameworks from event management (Leopkey & Parent, 2008).

Elite Athlete's Psychosocial Outcomes and Step Counts during Single- and Double-Player Exergaming Conditions

Author(s): Daniel McDonough, Zachary Pope, Jung Eun Lee, PhD, Nan Zeng, and Zan Gao, PhD

PURPOSE: This study examined differences in elite athlete’s acute psychosocial responses and step counts during single- and double-player exergaming conditions.

METHOD: Twenty former Chinese elite athletes (18 females; Mean age = 27.3 years; Mean ht. = 167.9 cm; Mean wt. = 63.5 kg) participated in two separate exergaming sessions: 1) Xbox 360 Reflex Ridge-single player condition; and 2) Xbox 360 Reflex Ridge-double player condition. Participants’ situational interest (novelty, challenge, attention demand, exploration intention, and instant enjoyment), enjoyment, and self-efficacy were examined using validated questionnaires for each condition. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was assessed using the modified Borg RPE Scale, with step counts tracked using ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers.

RESULTS: A MANOVA was used to examine differences between the two exergaming sessions for all outcomes. No significant differences were observed for any outcome between the two exercise modalities except for RPE (F (1, 38) = 4.6, p = 0.04, n2 = 0.11). Notably, participants perceived Reflex Ridge double-player to be more challenging and demanding than Reflex Ridge single-player. Further, participants were observed to have greater self-efficacy and steps during the single-player condition.

CONCLUSION: Findings suggest the single-player exergaming condition to be perceived as more intense—a finding congruent with the fact a greater number of steps were observed during this condition. Despite RPE being slightly lower during the double-player condition compared with the single-player condition, challenge and demand were slightly higher.

Employment First in the United States

Author(s): Amy L. Gunty, Jody Van Ness, and Kelly Nye-Lengerman

There is a significant gap between the number of people with disabilities who want to be employed in the community and those who actually are employed (Nye-Lengerman, Pettingell, Nord, & Hewitt, under review). In large part a response to this reality, the Employment First movement has been gaining steam. The Employment First philosophy identifies employment as the preferred outcome for people with disabilities, encouraging systems and individuals supporting people with disabilities to assist the individual in pursuing employment before considering alternatives (APSE, 2017). Since 2009, 32 states have taken formal action (i.e., executive order, legislation, or policy) to adopt Employment First policies and practices; however, the impact of these formal actions is unclear. This poster presents data regarding the roll-out of Employment First actions throughout the United States and examines the correlates of the different types of formal actions to provide a better understanding of why states take formal action to adopt Employment First policies and practices and the possible effects such actions have on the lives of people with disabilities.

Author(s): T.A. Line, J.E. Mervis, S. Potretzke, J. Wiseman, J. ROhovit, and P. Meyer-Kalos

Fidelity during treatment development and implementation has become increasingly important in outcome research (Moncher & Prinz, 1991). The demand for empirically supported therapies (EST) in prior 30 years has facilitated the proliferation of fidelity measures as treatment interventions are designed and delivered (Gearing et al., 2011). Fidelity is plays a critical role in the analysis of treatment effects (Perepletchikova & Kazdin, 2005). Yet, despite this increase, surprisingly little in the literature examines the components of fidelity. Additional challenges for fidelity science exist in definitional inconsistencies and lack of overall clarity regarding terminology (Gearing et al., 2011). Because the field of fidelity science is in its infancy, more research is needed to better understand its function in intervention research. This study examines fidelity scores of interventionists in three different treatment settings, along with associated outcomes to refine and enrich our understanding of fidelity.

Family communication pattern of youth and their perception of parents

Author(s): Sun-Kyung Lee and Jodi Dworkin

Current youth generations are heavy technology users and easily digitally connected in society. Referring to family communication patterns theory, digital technology can play a critical role in maintaining family relationship. However, little research has been conducted on parents-youth digital communication. The purpose of this study is to (1) identify communication patterns of youth-parents; and (2) explore youth perceptions of fathers and mothers separately.

Youth (N=348; age 18-29; 40.8% male) reported frequency of five communication methods (in person, phone call, text, SNS, and gaming) with both mother and father. Youth also completed the scale how they perceived parent involvement, autonomy support, and warmth.

Using Latent Profile Analysis, four sub-groups were determined: Low Tech, In Person, Texting, and High Tech. In 3-step multinomial regressions, high in-person communication with parents predicted positive perceptions. Interestingly, the High Tech group perceived greater father support.

In sum, in person communication was a strong indicator of positive parent-child relationships. For fathers, youth perceived positive parenting when having multi-type communication. Texting also seemed to be a strong communication tool for positive family relationships. This study implicates how communication with parents are associated with youths’ perceptions of parenting and digital communication can be a strong tool for youth-parent connection.

Gratitude and Positive Activity Planning to Support Recovery from Substance Use Disorders

Author(s): AR Krentzman, KE Goodenough, R Banerjee, and SB Daughters

"Making abstinence positively reinforcing is a compelling strategy to reduce addiction relapse. Gratitude intervention has been shown to improve affect and activity scheduling has been shown to promote enjoyment of daily activities. We developed a journal practice to encourage gratitude and positive-activity planning to make life in recovery more positively reinforcing and reduce relapse.

We interviewed 33 individuals (57% in recovery, 14% treatment providers, 29% both; 57% female, mean age 50) to ascertain their perspectives of the journal practice. The journal uses two column headings to promote gratitude: “good things that happened” and “things I am grateful for” and several headings representing valued life domains, e.g., work, health, spirituality, to plan meaningful future activity. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for themes.

Participants stated the practice would help them notice change over time, further self-discovery, identify issues to work on, gain emotional relief, and acknowledge successes. For some, setting multiple daily goals might feel overwhelming, failure to follow through on planned activity might produce negative emotion, and weaker writing skills might cause embarrassment. Future work will test the journal in a randomized controlled trial and integrate gratitude journaling into LETS ACT, an existing behavioral activation therapy for substance use."

Author(s): Sarah A. Burcher and Kadie L. Ausherbauer

Although employment is a key function of families as well as individuals, inclusion of the family as a social context for career identity development and vocational theories is lacking in the extant literature. Similarly, the experience of women in the workplace who experience cumulative effects of marginalization in terms of gender, race, and class, requires further study. Taking a critical perspective and using a hermeneutic phenomenology approach (Van Manen, 1990), this study was designed to explore the meaning of work for low-income women from an intergenerational family perspective to better understand the integration of work in the family context. Interviews with 14 women resulted in four categories with 16 themes emerged from the data. Emergent themes described work-family integration differently than prevalent ideas associated with work-life balance. The importance of family in relation to their work world was clear in that, when participants were asked about their experiences with work, overwhelmingly participants began by describing their location in a relational landscape. These lived narratives spoke of a deep interconnectedness of work, family, and life. By asking women from low-income contexts about the meaning of work, valuable perspectives emerged that can inform future research and improve the applicability of work programs.

Oat Avenanthramides Protects Against Eccentric Exercise induced Muscle Inflammation in Human after Downhill Running

Author(s): Tianou Zhang, Yuzi Zhang, Tao Liu, Gilles Gagnon, Jacqueline Ebrahim, Yi Fang Chu, Jodee Johnson, Dongwook Yeo, and Li Li Ji

Objectives: Avenanthramides (AVA) are a group of di-phenolic acids found only in oats, providing antioxidant protection and inhibiting inflammation. Downhill running (DR), a typical type of eccentric exercise, activates a series of inflammatory responses in skeletal muscles, exhibited as painful, red, and warm swelling. The objective of the study is to evaluate whether dietary AVA supplementation could attenuate eccentric exercise-induced muscle inflammation. Methods: 12 male and 12 female subjects were assigned to high-AVA (H-AVA) or low-AVA (control) groups. Two treadmill-based DR sessions were separated by 8-week washout period followed by 8-week oat AVA supplementation through receiving two cookies per day. Blood samples were collected before DR and at various time points (0h, 4h, 24h, 48h, 72h) after DR. Circulatory inflammatory cytokines Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1Receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and chemokines Monocyte Chemotactic Protein (MCP)-1, Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule (VCAM)-1 were measured using Luminex multiplex assays. Data were shown as mean ± SEM and analyzed using three-way repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Results showed that 24h and 72h post-DR, MCP-1 levels were decreased in H-AVA groups compared to control groups (P<0.05), while VCAM-1 levels were reduced in H-AVA groups compared to control groups (P<0.05) at 24h, 48h and 72h post-DR. Inflammatory cytokine IL-6 were downregulated in H-AVA groups compared to control groups at 4h and 72h post-DR (P<0.05), while anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-1Ra were upregulated in high-AVA groups compared to control groups in post-DR and 48h post-DR (P<0.05). Conclusions: Based on these preliminary data, we concluded that oat AVA supplementation may reduce circulatory inflammation and inhibit expressions of chemokines and adhesion molecules.

Promoting Virtue or Inviting Vigilantism? A Developmental Exploration of Self-Officiated Sport

Author(s): Sarah M. Espinoza and Maureen R. Weiss

Self-officiated sports like tennis and golf have often been contexts of study in sport psychology. However, the numerous physical and psychological demands involved in simultaneously acting as athlete and referee go unacknowledged in research. Furthermore, the potential impact of such demands on enjoyment and interpersonal relationships are absent from the literature. Considered developmentally, self-officiating is a fascinating phenomenon. During childhood and adolescence, changes in cognitive structure and function occur that impact social, emotional, and moral outcomes (Fischer & Silvern, 1985). This proposed study will explore developmental challenges to self-officiating for child and adolescent tennis players. Interviews with youth ages 7-9 and 13-15 will investigate what challenges they face and what strategies they use to balance self-officiating with gameplay. Content analysis and application of cognitive developmental theories will be used to derive overarching themes, which might suggest that the two groups face distinct age-related difficulties when self-officiating due to disparate cognitive, social, emotional, and moral capacities. Self-officiated sports provide opportunities to enact virtuous behavior and to engage in vigilante retaliation as opponents simultaneously compete and cooperate; findings could help stakeholders identify cognitive strategies, social skills, and emotion-regulation techniques that players can use to self-officiate effectively and maintain enjoyable experiences.

Screening health-related service needs among senior residents in subsidized housing facilities: Barriers and challenges

Author(s): Mingyang Zheng

With an aging population that continues to grow, the number of older adults living in subsidized housing has also been increasing. It is reported that 3.9 million older adults, aged 62 or above, were eligible for subsidized housing assistance in 2011 (Diwan, Chang, & Bajpai, 2018). In comparison with older adults living in unsubsidized housing, older adults in subsidized housing have more chronic illnesses, have lower levels of activities of daily living, and are more likely to experience mental health issues (Diwan et al., 2018). Thus, it is essential that older adults living in subsidized housing have timely screenings of their health-related service needs so that they can be connected with necessary assistance in order to maintain their independence and avoid being admitted to nursing homes.

The current study investigates the factors associated with screening rates among senior residents in subsidized housing. More specifically, the study explores whether housing program characteristics, such as staff educational backgrounds, the number of supportive services available, and types of housing (e.g. public housing, subsidized housing, or vouchers), are associated with the screening rates, controlling for individual characteristics, such as race, gender, household income, and living arrangement.

Author(s): Sarah A. Burcher, Sun-Kyung Lee, Jessie Rudi, Joyce Serido, and Soyeon Shim

Rising education costs (College Board, 2016) have turned many emerging adults to student loans to finance their education. A college degree is an implicit social contract that education leads to increased human capital and therefore entrance to the middle class and access to better jobs (Rubin, 2012). The disadvantages of student loans are apparent when compared to their debt-free peers (Elliot & Lewis, 2015). Using longitudinal data (N=282, 4 waves of data from 2008-2016), the purpose of this mixed methods study is to understand emerging adults’ experience of living with student loans and examine associations between debt and wellbeing. Coders analyzed open-ended responses to the question: “What advice would you give to high school seniors who are seeking student loans to pay for college?” using NVivo 11, revealing five overarching conceptual themes. A secondary analysis coded each response for overall valence to determine the tone of the advice to understand how valence towards loans differed across advice given. A general linear model (GLM) examined change in life satisfaction between valence groups across 4 time points. Overall, respondents feel responsible for their choices, but there is a negative valence questioning the value of loans for education, if it does not lead to financial security.