CEHD Research Day

Research Day
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Research Day

The following posters were accepted for Research Day 2020, which was cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Education research and educational equity

A Decade Review of Publications in Family Financial Socialization, Young Couples, & Financial Behaviors: 2007 – 2017

Author(s): Yiting Li

Financial socialization is a patent process in Asian cultures (Bandura, 1977; Gudmunson & Danes, 2011). This is most often present through questions about how to finance young adults’ education. It is less understood, however, in terms of the role that families play in the formation of emerging adults’ financial behaviors (e.g., credit card use, spending behaviors).

When young adults commit to a relationship (e.g., marriage), the two individuals that inhabit that relationship bring with them the respective socialization processes that they gained from their parents. They often have experienced different family backgrounds, however – which can potentially lead to discord regarding attitudes about money (and behaviors that follow). Young couples who have different financial values can struggle a great deal with arguments and/or impasses regarding financial matters.

The current review presented here begins to address a gap in current research (2007- 2017) by examining the financial socialization influences of both parents and romantic partners on young adults’ financial behaviors and, in turn, how these factors affect young adults’ perceptions of the couples’ overall- and financial- relationship(s). This effort will benefit financial professionals who work with Asian populations, as it will inform and better-equip them to advance the services, education, and counseling that they provide.

Author(s): Ann Jenkin

A case study conducted as a master’s thesis on Breakthrough TwinCities, a college access program located in the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area of Minnesota. This study explored the perspectives of participating students, parents, staff members, and the board of directors through individual interviews and online surveys to better understand the successful components of college access programs and the deep-rooted barriers they continue to face. Marks of program success include the utilization of future orientation, individualization, community based developmental relationships, unrestricted learning and mirrored perspectives. These practices have implications for fellow college access programs as well as public schools that serve under resourced students and deserve additional research in order to expand their reach as high leverage habits of successful, equitable organizations.

Are test accommodations for English language learners on state accountability assessments evidence-based? A multi-study systematic review and meta-analysis

Author(s): Joseph A. Rios, Samuel D. Ihlenfeldt, Carlos Chavez

The objectives of this two-part study were to: (a) investigate English learner (EL) accommodation practices on state accountability assessments of reading/English language arts and mathematics in grades 3-8, and (b) conduct a meta-analysis of EL accommodation effectiveness on improving test performance. Across all distinct testing programs, we found that at least one EL test accommodation was provided for both test content areas. The most popular accommodations provided were supplying students with word-to-word dual language dictionaries, reading aloud test directions and items in English, and allowing flexible time/scheduling. However, we found minimal evidence that testing programs provide practitioners with recommendations on how to assign relevant accommodations to EL test takers’ English proficiency level. To evaluate whether accommodations used in practice are supported with evidence of their effectiveness, a meta-analysis was conducted. On average, across 26 studies and 95 effect sizes (N = 11,069), accommodations improved test performance by 0.16 standard deviations. Both test content and sampling design were found to moderate accommodation effectiveness; however, none of the accommodations investigated were found to have intervention effects that were statistically different from zero. Overall, these results suggest that currently employed EL test accommodations lack evidence of their effectiveness.

Associations between child sleep problems and executive functioning in middle childhood

Author(s): E. A. Sparrow, M. L. DeJoseph, Y. Liu, C.B. Blair, & D. Berry

Studies have demonstrated associations between child sleep quality and academic performance, yet the underlying mechanisms explaining these associations remain unknown. In addition, for emerging adolescents experiencing poverty-related stressors, sleep quality may be especially compromised. Combined, these factors could have deleterious effects for youth’s executive functioning (EF)—or the set of processes that allow one to pay attention, remember instructions, and juggle competing cognitive demands. Using data from the Family Life Project (N = 1,292), a prospective longitudinal sample of children in predominantly low-income communities, this study tested the extent to which poverty and contemporaneous child sleep problems (such as bedtime resistance, daytime sleepiness, and sleep duration) predict EF performance in early adolescence (M age = 13.2 yrs). Controlling for demographic covariates, multiple regression analyses indicated that greater sleep problems (via child self-report) and lower income-to-needs (INR) was significantly associated with decreased accuracy on the mixed block. This was not the case for reaction time latencies on the mixed trials. Results highlight the importance of considering the unique effects of sleep problems in relation to multiple aspects of children’s executive functioning in the context of poverty.

Experiences of Degree-Seeking College Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder in University Transition and Support Programs

Author(s): Daniel Greenberg

This dissertation research considers the experiences of bachelor’s degree-seeking college students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) participating in targeted supplementary support and transition programs at their universities. The study seeks to answer the question of how the use of academic and social supports that a university provides to a bachelor’s degree-seeking student with ASD through targeted supplementary and transition programs and the student’s perception of the helpfulness of support received relate to the student’s adaptation to college. Influenced by transition theory and disability theory, this study centers on a two-stage exploratory quantitative design in which I collected data on academic and social supports in programs at universities, then disseminated a Qualtrics survey to students in a pool of eight programs. Program structures were explored and analyzed, revealing certain patterns regarding the offering of categories of supports. Findings from descriptive level and non-parametric statistical analyses suggest, among other things, that students tend to view all categories of academic and social supports explored as being at least somewhat helpful. Additionally, program participants appear to adapt reasonably well to college academically and in terms of life and career preparation, while their responses to social adaptation items merit more complex consideration.

Author(s): Yi-Chen Wu, Martha Thurlow, Davis Johnson, Ernest Davenport, John LaVelle, and Cynthia Matthias

The purpose of this study is to explore the data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study–2012 (NLTS 2012) on the IEP/transition planning meeting experiences for students with disabilities and English learners (ELs) with disabilities. This study used factor analysis to explore the constructs of IEP/transition planning meeting experience for these two groups separately. Furthermore, Chi-square analysis were used to explore the differences on the IEP/transition planning meeting experiences between ELs with disabilities and non-ELs with disabilities. Finally, the logistic regression analysis were used to explore the predictors for youth’s role and contribution in the IEP/transition planning meeting.

Results identified four factors for students with disabilities—Youth/Parent Participation, Youth Contribution, Youth/Parent Invitation & Youth Output, and Outside Agency Involvement—and five factors for ELs with disabilities—Youth participation, Parent participation, Invitation & future discussion, Youth involvement, and Youth role. Results showed three out of four ELs with disabilities reported they contributed a little on coming up the goals in the transition planning meeting. The predictors for ELs with disabilities were different from non-ELs with disabilities. This implicates educators may explore different routes to get parents involvement at school to increase parents and youth’s excitation on living independently in the future.

Helping Educators and Parents Make Accessibility Decisions for ELs

Author(s): Kristi Liu, Charity Funfe Tatah Mentan, Darrell Peterson, and Erik Larson

English learners (ELs) often need additional supports to participate fully in classes and on tests. However, educators and parents of ELs sometimes do not understand how they can work together to improve access for their students. In this poster session, we will present two resources created by the Improving Instruction project to help stakeholders meet ELs’ accessibility needs.

The first resource, a series of online professional development modules, were created to show content teachers how to make their classes and tests more accessible for ELs. The modules follow a fictional content teacher as she makes accessibility decisions for a student who is an EL. Module users watch videos of this teacher, read about best practices for supporting ELs, and practice making accessibility decisions for a different fictional student.

The second resource, a set of briefs, provide clear and simple advice to help principals, teachers, and parents of ELs communicate about accessibility needs. To reach more parents, the briefs have been translated and audio recorded in four languages besides English.

Those who interact with the poster presenters will leave with tools that they can share with colleagues who want to improve educational outcomes for ELs.

Investigating Strategies to Increase General Education Teachers’ Adherence to Evidence-Based Practices: A Meta-Analysis of the Single Case Literature

Author(s): James L. Merle, Andrew J. Thayer, Madeline F. Larson, Sydney Pauling, Clay R. Cook, Joseph A Rios, Jenna L. McGinnis, Margaret Sullivan

Educational research has produced several evidence-based practices (EBP) to prevent and address social, emotional, and behavioral (SEB) needs among students, yet these practices are often insufficiently adopted and implemented with fidelity by teachers to produce beneficial outcomes, leaving students at risk for developing SEB problems. Implementation strategies (i.e., methods and procedures designed to promote implementation outcomes) are needed to improve teachers’ uptake and delivery of EBPs with fidelity as a way of preventing and addressing student SEB needs. This meta-analysis sought to examine the types and magnitude of effects of implementation strategies that have been designed and tested to improve teacher adherence to SEB EBPs. Included studies (1) used single-case experimental designs (2) employed at least one implementation strategy (3) targeted general education teachers, and (4) evaluated adherence as a core dimension of fidelity related to the delivery of EBPs. In total, this study included 28 studies and evaluated 122 unique time-series graphs. Overall, implementation strategies were found to increase teacher adherence to EBPs above baseline and group-based pre-implementation trainings alone. Compared to baseline phases, the average effect size of implementation strategies was moderate to large (g = 2.43, tau = .77). Moderator analysis also indicated that larger effect sizes were associated with implementation strategies that used a greater number of unique behavior change techniques (p = .02). Implications and future directions for research and practice on the use of implementation strategies for general education teachers are discussed.

Making Visible the Invisible: Multi-Study Investigation of Disproportionate Special Education Identification of U.S. Asian American and Pacific Islander Students

Author(s): Amanda L. Sullivan, Tara Kulkarni, Vichet Chhuon

Although disproportionality has been a focus of special education research for more than 50 years, relatively few researchers have addressed potential inequitable or inappropriate treatment of Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) students in the US, particularly in quantitative research. This multi-study investigation explored patterns and predictors of AAPI representation in special education using (a) data from states’ federal child count reports and (b) a subsample of 4,290 participants from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Kindergarten Class of 2010-11 (ECLS-K:2011). Descriptive analysis of states’ child count data indicated that, compared to White students, Asian and Pacific Islander students’ relative risk of identification differed for most disabilities, with Pacific Islanders generally demonstrating higher relative risk indicative of over-identification. Multivariate analysis of the ECLS-K:2011 subsample indicated that ethnic group differences in risk of special education identification were not robust to sociodemographic and performance controls. We discuss potential contributors to these patterns and implications for research.

Middle School PRESS: Operationalizing Multi-tiered Systems of Support for Adolescent Readers

Author(s): Anna Jennerjohn, Kristin Burger, Lori Helman

A Midwestern school district approached a university research center to form a partnership to support developing middle school readers. Over a two year period, the university-district partners worked to modify an existing elementary multi-tiered system of support (MTSS) framework for the middle school setting, called MS PRESS. Design-based, mixed methods research allowed the project a dual focus on practical outcomes and theoretical implications.

After implementing MS PRESS over a two-year period, teachers reported knowing their students better through data-driven decision making. They implemented multiple interventions to meet student need with a co-teacher, but found that for students reading significantly discrepant from their peers, instruction in a private space was preferred. Further, there was a constant tension for teachers between using the district grade level curriculum and meeting their students’ developmental reading needs. Quantitative results, coupled with qualitative explanations, showed that an overuse of fluency instruction did not have a positive correlation with a generalized reading outcome (STAR; r = -0.22) but that comprehension intervention did (r = 0.31). After another design phase, the next questions for research include how student-reported motivation is related to peer-based reading MTSS frameworks such as MS PRESS.

MTSS for All: Including Students with the Most Significant Cognitive Disabilities

Author(s): Terri Vandercook, Jessica Bowman, Gail Ghere

"This session presents Multi-tiered System of Supports (MTSS) as a framework that is inclusive of all students, including those with significant cognitive disabilities, and provides a vision for integrating general education and special education supports. It also proposes MTSS as being foundational for building sustainable, inclusive programs for all students.

MTSS is a framework for providing academic and behavior instruction and interventions to support the learning of all students. Districts and schools use the MTSS framework to design and implement a tiered continuum of supports that align across classrooms, schools and districts. While Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) states that MTSS is an approach for increasing student achievement by developing programs and activities that increase the ability of teachers to effectively teach children with disabilities, including children with significant cognitive disabilities, and English Learners... (Sec 2103(b)(3)(F))"", frequently, MTSS do not include students with significant cognitive disabilities. Rather, instruction for these students is usually provided in silos separate from a system’s tiered instructional supports. By isolating the instructional systems for students with significant cognitive disabilities, the concept that all students are general education students first and that special education is a supplementary service is virtually negated.

Author(s): Chris Rogers, Angela Hochstetter, and Sheryl Lazarus

This session highlights several interactive online resources available for undergraduate students, graduate students, and researchers investigating academic research on accessibility and accommodations for students with disabilities, English learners, and English learners with disabilities, as well as research-based publications on the instruction and assessment of students with significant cognitive disabilities who participate in the alternate assessment. The National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO) in the Institute on Community Integration has compiled three online bibliographies that contain collections of academic studies on educational supports. The Accommodations for Students with Disabilities Bibliography contains information about empirical studies on the effects of various testing accommodations for students with disabilities. Similarly, the Accommodations for English Learners Bibliography contains information about empirical studies on the effects of various testing accommodations for English learners. The Alternate Assessment (AA-AAAS) Bibliography contains information about research-based publications on alternate assessments and standards-based instruction for students with significant cognitive disabilities. These interactive bibliographies allow users to gain understandings that can spur new directions for future research inquiry, and can jump start searches for relevant literature. Learn more about the Bibliographies at the poster session, and even try out a demonstration search on an available laptop at our poster session!

Author(s): Rashne Jehangir, Ph.D., Associate Professor; Michael Stebleton, Ph.D., Associate Professor; Kelly Collins, M.A., Morgan Bartlett, M.Ed.

Undergraduates from underrepresented minority (URM) backgrounds face a myriad of challenges and opportunities as they explore career pathways, particularly in the competitive and “chilly” world of STEM. For this presentation, we focus primarily on understanding more about how students experience mentorship and engagement in research. To investigate and gain insight into these phenomena, the researchers interviewed 35-45 students across two institutions, one small, private liberal arts college and one large research institution. Students shared what makes a research experience positive and meaningful, strategies they use to navigate developing and balancing identities they hold, and what impact mentoring interactions have on their experience in STEM. Building community, engaging in programming, the quality of student-staff interactions among others emerged as important themes from student interviews. If we as practitioners are serious about fixing the “chilly” climate of STEM fields and increasing retention of URM students, this is an area of research and practice that deserves institutional attention.

The Early Writing Project: Tools, Learning Modules, and Coaching for Data-Based Individualization

Author(s): Elizabeth Lam, Ahmed Alghamdi, Emma Shanahan, Erica Lembke, Kristen L. McMaster

This poster provides an overview of The Early Writing Project, which provides tools, learning modules, and coaching to support teachers' use of data-based individualization(DBI) to improve early writing outcomes for students with intensive needs. The presenters will also share evidence of the efficacy of this professional development system.

Learner Outcomes Participants will be able to: 1. Describe the purpose and components of The Early Writing Project. 2. Identify research-based assessment and intervention approaches that support children's early writing development. 3. Describe a data-based decision-making process for individualizing and intensifying early writing intervention.

The Impact of an Anishinaabe-centered social work program on MSW alums

Author(s): Cary B. Waubanascum, MSW; Wendy Haight, PhD; David Glesener, MSW; Priscilla Day, EdD; Brenday Bussey, MSW; Karen Nichols, PhD

One of the most pressing and controversial issues facing child welfare policymakers and practitioners today is the dramatic overrepresentation of Indigenous families in North American public child welfare systems. We view the problem of such disparities from the perspective of settler-colonialism, that is, the erasure of Indigenous peoples for continued conquest of Indigenous land. This research examines the impact of an Anishinaabe-centered education program that addresses disparities, in part, through the education of the current and future generation of child welfare professionals. For over a decade, The Center for Regional and Tribal Child Welfare Studies at the University of Minnesota-Duluth has educated MSW students and professionals to practice and design policies with Tribal communities and families. Indigenous and non-Indigenous alums described their educational experiences at the Center, and any impact on their current practice during in-depth, semi-structured, audio recorded interviews. They emphasized the profound impact both of the program’s Indigenous content (history, culture, language, spirituality) and process (an experiential learning that engages the head and the heart) on their learning and subsequent professional practice. Implications for resisting the impact of settler colonialism on child welfare are discussed.

Author(s): Sun-Kyung Lee

In Minnesota, the overlap between children experiencing homelessness, being involved with child protective services (CPS), and ending up in out-of-home placement (OHP) is high. The majority of homeless children reported at least one adverse childhood experience (89%) and about half having at least one OHP. By experiencing these multiple instances of adversity, children have increased risk for negative outcomes in educational settings, such as dropout. However, few resources exist to support professionals in addressing these children who are/have experienced both homelessness and CPS involvement. By integrating cross-system data we may better identify risk factors that affect child educational outcomes. The study followed 2203 sixth grade students over a 10-year period (year 2008-2017) to understand the relationship between homelessness, CPS involvement, OHP experiences, and high school graduation in Minnesota. This study used latent class analysis to identify groups of homeless students with shared risk characteristics, including chronic homelessness, mobility, dropout, disability, CPS, and OHP reports. About 30% of students showed high resiliency regardless of chronic homelessness or maltreatment. More homogeneous group was shown in non-graduate student. This presentation will discuss the benefits of cross-system collaboration in Minnesota and how these may be applied to help local professionals best serve at-risk children.

Author(s): Tanya K. Bailey, MSW, LICSW

The application of animal-assisted therapy (AAT) continues to demonstrate a multitude of positive effects and outcomes within the emotional, social, cognitive, physical, and spiritual realms of human well-being. The PACE Model for AAT provides a framework to assess rigor, goals, objectives, risk management, and precautions in each AAT session, and is an illustration of the ever-changing, dynamic relationship that happens during AAT sessions. Together, these four components set the ""pace"" for AAT sessions and include: the practitioner, the animal, the client, and the environment. The merits of the four PACE components must be considered individually, and yet together as well, as they create a reciprocal and evolving relationship that is unique at each session. Furthermore, each component in the model brings a level of skill and capacity to each AAT session called Quality of Competence (QOC). AAT sessions are strengthened or limited by the QOC and synergy of all four components; it requires both art and science to combine them and create an effective therapeutic experience. The application of the PACE ModelTM in all AAT sessions provides practitioners and administrators with a checks and balances tool for effective and efficient oversight of the design, implementation, and evaluation of AAT sessions.

What works: ELA instructional practices for students who are both English language learners and have significant cognitive disabilities

Author(s): Kristin Liu, Michael Dosedel, Martha Thurlow

Growing awareness of the unique needs of English learners who also have disabilities among educators, administrators, researchers, and policymakers has led to notable progress in both policy and use of best practices. Progress has been slower for English learners with severe disabilities. Students with significant cognitive disabilities frequently participate in states’ alternate assessments based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS). A growing number of these students are also English learners (ELs). These students require access to evidence-based instruction prior to assessment.

The purpose of this investigation is to identify an evidence base on best practices in English language arts instruction for students who are both English learners and have significant cognitive disabilities. The poster will highlight the types and effectiveness of interventions in the literature, methods for identifying students as ELs within studies, and linguistic supports provided. Interventions investigated included Constant Time Delay (CDT), Discrete Trial Training (DTT), Forward Chaining of Skills (Task Analysis), Model-Lead-Test, traditional and technology-enhanced Shared Stories, Explicit Instruction, Peer-Delivered Interventions, Least Prompts, Story Mapping, Multiple Exemplar Training, and L1 instruction. Implications for instruction, testing, and policy are discussed.

Autism and Developmental Disabilities

A Spatial Analysis of Service Lag to Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention

Author(s): Jason Wolff, Frank Symons, Jessica Simacek

Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) is one of the top evidence based early intervention approaches to increase adaptive behavior among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Despite a strong public health emphasis on early intervention following diagnosis of ASD, significant barriers can interfere with timely intervention access. Among barriers (e.g., waitlists, service provider shortages), the impact of geography of where the family seeking intervention resides on EIBI access has been relatively unexamined. The purpose of this study was to assess the relation between geographical distributions of families of children with ASD on beginning EIBI services. A cohort of children ages 3- to 5- years old with ASD between 2008 and 2010 were identified through Minnesota’s Medicaid Management Information System. We compared metro and non-metro residence using Kaplan- Meier product limit estimates of survival and Chi- square analyses. We also assessed the distribution of service providers and the average time lag from a received diagnosis to EIBI onset with the geographical information system (GIS). Results showed that overall the majority of children in the cohort experienced a delay to the onset of EIBI, regardless of geography, with non-metro areas experiencing shorter delays than metro areas. Future research should further evaluate other factors that could affect the timeliness of intervention and ways in which to alleviate these barriers.

Author(s): Tomfohrde, O., Goldberg, E., Goerdt, A., Hudock, R., & Weiler, L.

Adolescents diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) report that they often feel burdened by their diagnosis and struggle with social interactions and anxiety. Concurrently, adolescents with ASD rarely know adult role models with ASD who can serve as a source of guidance and inspiration. The Autism Mentorship Program (AMP) is a first-of-its-kind program that matches autistic* adolescents with autistic adults in one-to-one mentoring relationships (*identity-first language preferred). AMP was designed to provide youth with a sense of identity and belonging, by means of a supportive relationship. The aim of this study was to explore the promise of AMP to affect mentors’ and mentees’ self-concept and self-satisfaction. Seven mentee-mentor pairs (N=14) completed pre- and post-test assessments. Results showed that 83% of mentees and 57% of mentors improved in overall self-concept. Mentees experienced a moderate change in life-satisfaction (d=0.56) and a moderate to large change in self-satisfaction (d=0.71). Mentors reported a minimal change in self-satisfaction (d=0.13) and a small increase in life-satisfaction (d=0.30). One hundred percent of mentees and mentors reported satisfaction with the program. As such, AMP shows promise as a mutually beneficial program for supporting aspects of wellbeing for individuals with ASD.

Author(s): David R. Johnson, Yi Chen Wu, Martha L Thurlow, John LaVelle, Ernest Davenport, and Cynthia Matthias

This poster is based on research that we have recently conducted based on an Institute for Education Science, U.S. Department of Education grant title “Exploring Predictors of IEP/Transition Planning Participation and Future Goal Aspirations of Students with Disabilities”. The studies were based on a secondary analyses of the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2012 (NLTS 2012). NLTS is a sample of 13,000 students and 13,000 parents conducted by Mathematica Policy Research and the Institute on Community integration at the University of minnesota. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires that students with disabilities beginning by age 16 are invited to and actively participate in setting goals and making decisions regarding their school and postschool involvements. The results of this study document the challenges that youth with intellectual and developmental disabilities have in assuming an active role in the transition planning process.

Children's Mental Health and Welfare

Author(s): Young Ji Yoon, Priscilla Gibson, Wendy Haight, Minhae Cho, Ndilimeke J. Nashandi

Although the disproportionate suspension of Black boys has been a longstanding issue, the apparent vulnerability of Black girls to harsh disciplinary practices is of recent concern to educators and researchers. We used a sequential mixed methods design to examine the out-of-school suspension (OSS) of Black girls. In-depth, qualitative interviews explored the experiences of 10 Black middle-school girls with OSSs, their caregivers and educators to generate hypotheses for, and then expand, statewide quantitative analyses. Participants described that Black girls were sanctioned more frequently and more harshly than were whites for the same behaviors. Quantitative analysis of cross-system, administrative data of 7th grade students in the state of Minnesota found that Black girls were overrepresented in OSS relative to white, Asian, and Hispanic boys and girls, and Native girls. Furthermore, Black girls were sanctioned more harshly than were white students for disruptive, disorderly and violent behaviors. Finally, qualitative data suggested strategies to reduce disproportionality in the frequency and severity of OSSs for Black girls. Educators can work to eliminate sexual harassment and bullying experienced by Black girls; and create programs to build upon their self-advocacy such as developing supportive communities of other Black girls and trusted adults at school.

Adolescents' Exposure to Community Violence: Academic Achievements and the Indirect Effects of Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms

Author(s): Neveen (Nivin) Ali-SAleh Darawsha

Exposure to community violence (CV) is alarmingly high and associated with negative consequences. The present study examines the rates and consequences of exposure to community violence among Palestinian adolescents from Israel, age 14-18 years. Specifically, it examines whether exposure to community violence is indirectly related to academic achievement through internalizing and externalizing symptoms among adolescents.

Method: A semi systematic random sample of 760 Palestinian adolescents in Israel, (320 boys, and 440 girls) filled out a self-administration questionnaire. Most of the adolescents had witnessed community violence during the last year and during their lifetime; more than one third had directly experienced lifetime violence compared with 19.6% during the last year. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the indirect effects of exposure to CV and academic achievement.

Benefit-Cost Analysis of the PMTO-ADAPT Program for Military Families with Deployed Parents

Author(s): Hayley Rahl-Brigman, Nishank Varshney, Abigail Gewirtz

PMTO-ADAPT (After Deployment: Adaptive Parenting Tools) is an innovative parent training intervention for military families with at least one previously deployed parent. PMTO-ADAPT has been evaluated through both efficacy and effectiveness trials and is currently being implemented in some of the largest military bases. Previous studies have found significant intervention-related improvements in parent mental health, parenting, and child adjustment; however, there has not yet been a benefit-cost analysis of this program for military families.

This study uses previously conducted research to estimate the effects of this short-term parent training program implemented in the context of a Randomized Controlled Trial conducted in Minnesota. We estimate the cost of the program through personal interviews of the project staff and using budget documentation. We estimate the dollar value of benefits associated with outcomes such as a reduction in parent post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), improved parent functioning, and better child adjustment. We calculate the benefits for both the families participating in the program, and the society at large. We calculate the benefit-cost ratio of the program to assess whether the benefits of the program outweigh its costs. Results from this study will address whether the beneficial effects of the PMTO-ADAPT program outweigh the costs.

Child Welfare Workforce Stability following System Reform

Author(s): Dr. Traci LaLiberte, David Glesener, Misty Blue, Sookyoung Park, and Dr. Kristine Piescher

The 2019 Workforce Stabilization Survey consisted of 90 items which were developed to assess the current composition and experience of Minnesota’s child welfare workforce, workforce job satisfaction and well-being, workforce satisfaction with supervision, workforce intern to remain employed in child welfare, and workforce perception of child welfare systems change in Minnesota. During March and April 2019, 2,511 child welfare and child protection social workers, case aides, and supervisors were invited to complete the survey. The survey received a 42.3% response rate with 1,086 child welfare professionals completing the entire survey.

This poster will detail further the research process that was used to conduct the 2019 Workforce Stabilization Study. Presenters will describe findings of the current study and in comparison to the findings of the 2016 study. Special attention will be paid to child welfare professionals’ perceptions of child welfare systems change, diversity and inclusion, and workforce well-being, as these were new areas of focus during the 2019 study. Strategies to address workforce well-being and stability will also be presented.

Author(s): Bailey, A. E., & Reese, M. H. T.

The Center for Inclusive Child Care and the Center for Early Education and Development at the University of Minnesota evaluated the use of Relationship-Based Professional Development (RBPD) in coaching licensed child care providers throughout Minnesota. The goal of the Inclusion Coaching Project is to support providers in serving young children who have special needs and/or challenging behaviors. The purpose of the evaluation was to determine the process and impact of implementing RBPD and coaching with child care providers, as a means for supporting and sustaining care for children with special needs. The overall results demonstrated increases in providers’ knowledge of recommended practices, their ability to develop and implement inclusion practices, their feelings of efficacy and confidence in their work, and decreases in the rates of suspension/expulsion of young children with special needs. Providers reported that the single most important factor influencing their perception of the Inclusion Coaching Program was the quality of the relationship they developed with their coach.

Getting to the table: Agency Characteristics and Evidence-Based Intervention Adoption

Author(s): Mimi Choy-Brown, Emily K. Hamovitch, Lindsay A. Bornheimer, Mary Acri, & Mary M. McKay

Scaling evidence-based interventions (EBI) for children and families across healthcare systems can expand public health impact [1]. EBI adoption scholarship posits that the decision to adopt is a dynamic process and that agencies with more resources are more likely to decide to adopt new EBIs [2]. However, less understood are characteristics of agencies that opt in across the stages of adoption. This study examined the relationship between agency (N = 69) characteristics (e.g., revenue) and four adoption stages during a large-scale trial of an EBI for children with significant behavioral difficulties and their families. 48 (70%) of agencies demonstrated interest, 28 (41%) scheduled an informational meeting, 20 (29%) received training, and 15 (22%) demonstrated EBI uptake. Analyses indicated no differences in characteristics and initial interest. However, agencies with small-sized revenue had significantly reduced odds of opting in at other adoption stages. Implications for strategies to bring EBI access to scale are presented.

Moral Injury among Akan Women: Lessons for Culturally Sensitive Child Welfare Interventions

Author(s): Haight, W., Korang-Okrah, R., Black, J.E., Gibson, P., & Nashandi, N.J.C.

This ethnographic study uses Akan (Ghanaian) women who are widowed and their children as an exemplary case study to consider the cultural shaping of moral injury, and implications for culturally-sensitive child welfare practice. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured, audio-recorded interviews. Twenty-one widows, 14 religious professionals providing services to widows, and one secular professional participated. Participants identified some morally injurious events and responses consistent with the Western literature, for example, events involving betrayal of widows and children were associated with feelings of intense sadness, rage, and spiritual or existential crises. Other events and responses were culturally nuanced. Women’s vulnerability to morally injurious events was enhanced due to culturally-based gender roles, widowhood rituals and customary laws involving inheritance. In addition, these events were interpreted and experienced through Akan spirituality in which the self is comprised of the soul, spirit and body; and moral injury, or “soul killing,” involves the dissolution of this trinity and embitterment of the soul. The Akan cultural context also provided resources for healing through community engagement with other widows. This poster provides both a conceptual framework for the empirical examination of the cultural shaping of moral injury, and empirical data within a non-Western cultural context.

Moral Injury among Emerging Adults who have Experienced Foster care

Author(s): Haight, Wendy; Soffer-Elnekave, Ruth; Nashandi, Ndilimeke; Kingery, Linda

This study examined any moral injury experienced by emerging adults who have experienced foster care. We conducted 27 audio recorded, individual interviews as measured by a modified version of the Moral Injury Events Scale (MIES, Nash et al., 2013). Participants described the events they experienced as morally injurious. Twenty-two participants described others’ moral transgressions. These included transgressions by biological parents (e,g., physical abuse of a younger sibling; abandonment), foster/adoptive parents (e.g., psychologically abusive religious practices; sexual abuse) and professionals (e.g., not being listened to or believed, having experiences of abuse invalidated). Nine participants reported transgressing their own moral values. These transgressions included abusing a younger child (e.g., acting out the sexual abuse they had experienced) and physical harm to the self (e.g., cutting). Participants also described that the morally injurious events they experienced made them feel profoundly unprotected and vulnerable as children. They felt betrayed, isolated, exploited, forgotten, rejected, and intensely angry. Some reported a deep and abiding sense of deficiency. They felt “bad,” “not normal,” “like garbage,” like “throwaway” children. Longer term, developmental consequences included profound consequences to the "self." Others reported continued problems with attachment, suicidality and anomie. Implications for child welfare are discussed.

Reaching college students who indicate potential self-harm in an online study

Author(s): Anna C. Wagner, Meredith Gunlicks-Stoessel, Nicole Morrell, & Megan E. Patrick

As part of an ongoing, online randomized controlled trial designed to reduce heavy drinking and negative alcohol-related consequences among first-year college students (R01AA026574), this poster examines a subsample of participants who have flagged for potential self-harm, and the process of connecting them with resources.

Participants (N=891) have been asked to complete surveys before, during, and after their first semester of college, which include items that assess for self-harm (e.g., high-risk drinking, suicidality, depression). A clinical psychologist followed up with each participant as they flagged to evaluate risk and provide resources.

11.8% (N=105) of the total sample flagged for self-harm at least once thus far. Of those, the psychologist was able to reach 62.2% (N=79), while 37.8% (N=48) did not respond to phone and email contact attempts. Additional data, including patterns of contact, multiple flags per participant, and severity of self-harm, will also be examined.

This exploratory analysis of contact with participants offers insight into the process of reaching out to college students who endorse potential self-harm. These results show the high prevalence of mental health challenges among incoming first-year students, and will be used to inform future mental health interventions and best practices in research studies with this population.

Author(s): Anna R. Heinz, McNair Scholar, Cara Lucke, Graduate Research Assistant, Ann S. Masten, Regents Professor

Children experiencing homelessness face many adversities that can negatively impact their well- being. Because teacher-child relationships can support child resilience, I examined how sociodemographic risk was related to teacher-child closeness and conflict. Participants included 83 homeless caregivers (95% female; Mage = 30 years; 61% African American, and their 4- to 6- year-old children (54% male; 66% African American). Parents provided demographic information and teachers subsequently reported on their relationships with the children. Teachers reported more conflict with boys and more closeness for children with higher IQ scores. Overall, ten sociodemographic risk indicators did not predict teacher-child closeness or conflict. However, exploratory analyses suggest that “parents less than 18 years of age at birth of first child” unexpectedly was the strongest predictor of teacher-child closeness. Unsafe housing was the strongest predictor of teacher-child conflict. These findings highlight the importance of individual and contextual characteristics for teacher-child relationships, and thereby possibly school success.

Author(s): Kevin Ly, Pearl Han Li, Melissa Koenig, Daniel Berry

Previous developmental work has shown that children have a robust preference for their own group members. Another line of research has found that children are able to track the reliability of others and selectively learn from individuals who appear to be more knowledgeable. In the current study, we aim to build on past research and test how group membership and epistemic trust interact. Specifically, using both behavioral and physiological measures, to explore how group membership and plausibility of the speakers’ claims may affect children’s learning decisions and social preferences. To examine these questions, 48 four- to five-year-old children were recruited, assigned to a color group using the minimal group membership paradigm and then presented with claims about novel and familiar objects. All participants were randomly assigned to one of two between-subject conditions: (1) an ingroup condition where the ingroup member provided counterintuitive information; and (2) an outgroup condition where an outgroup member provided countervailing claims. To measure children’s social and learning preferences, we used selective learning, explicit liking, and resource allocation tasks. In addition, we collected ongoing cardiac activity, as indicators of ANS physiology to see any physiological responses.

Author(s): Alyssa Meuwissen & Meredith Reese

Child welfare workers experience high rates of secondary traumatic stress and compassion fatigue, leading to high rates of burnout and turnover in the field. Reflective consultation is a model of professional development that is designed to support a practitioner’s emotional experience as well as their relationships with their clients and colleagues. However, little research has been done on the impact of reflective consultation, because there is a lack of empirically validated research tools to measure its quality. Previous research has relied on self-report instruments, which are limited by reporter bias. We have developed the Reflective Interaction Observation Scale (RIOS), which is the first tool used to code recordings of reflective consultation to identify the degree to which a session meets best practice standards. We conducted a study in which over 40 child welfare workers participated in 6 months of reflective consultation and completed surveys pre- and post-test. This poster will present the first empirical data examining how the RIOS, coded from recordings of the reflective consultation sessions, can measure change over time and examine its validity compared with established self-report measures.

Living Better, Living Longer

A conceptual model of loneliness: Experiences of Hmong older adults

Author(s): Cindy Vang, PhD, MSW; Michael Sieng, PhD; Mingyang Zheng, MSW; Pa Thor, MSW

Among the growing refugee population, older adults are especially susceptible to loneliness, an experience associated with a variety of physical and mental health issues and early mortality. Despite their heightened vulnerabilities to loneliness, the experiences of refugee older adults remain understudied. This study aimed to understand the loneliness experiences of community-dwelling Hmong older adults, a refugee group resettled in the United States over 40 years ago. A constructivist grounded theory approach guided by an intersectionality framework was used to address three aims: 1) to understand the concept of loneliness, 2) to explore the premigration, displacement, and postmigration experiences of loneliness, and 3) to examine how they cope with loneliness. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with 17 Hmong older adults age 65 and older residing in Sacramento and Fresno, California. Analysis of the data was an iterative process between coding the data, generating focused codes, and connecting the categories to establish a conceptual pattern. Across the premigration, displacement, and postmigration phases, Hmong older adults identified loneliness through physical and emotional expressions with varying intensity, experienced based on context-specific intersectional identities, influencing factors, and coping mechanisms. These findings suggest the need for greater culturally- and linguistically-responsive services informed by Hmong older adults.

Body Composition of NCAA Division I Female Soccer Athletes through Competitive Seasons

Author(s): Erica J. Roelofs, April Bockin, Tyler A. Bosch, Christopher W. Bach, Jonathan M. Oliver, Aaron F. Carbuhn, Philip R. Stanforth, Donald R. Dengel

The purpose of this study was to examine body composition of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I female soccer players by position and season. One hundred seventy-five female athletes were categorized by positions of forward (n=47), midfielder (n=51), defender (n=57), and goalkeeper (n=20). A dual X-ray absorptiometry scan assessed percent body fat, total lean mass, total fat mass, arm and leg lean mass and fat mass, and visceral adipose tissue. Goalkeepers had significantly higher total, arm, and leg lean mass and fat mass compared to all other positions (p<0.05). For seasonal changes, body fat percentage was significantly higher in winter off-season (26.7%) compared to summer off-season (25.7%) and pre-season (25.8%; p<0.01) for all positions. Total and leg lean mass was significantly lower in winter off-season compared to all other seasons, and total lean mass was significantly higher in summer off-season than pre-season (p<0.01). Overall, goalkeepers were significantly different than all other positions. Body fat percentage increased and lean mass decreased in winter off-season indicating potential undesired changes in training and/or nutrition over the break whereas lean mass was the highest in summer off-season potentially reflecting the emphasis on resistance training and increased volume of training.

Author(s): Keyzers, A., Holmgren, H., LeBouef, S., & Dworkin, J.

The adoption of communication technology including texting provides an easy way for families to stay connected even when geographically distant. For example, research indicates that when youth leave home for college, they use texting to connect with family. However, there is limited understanding of the content of these communications, and the ways texting might support college students. In the current study, we explored college freshmen’s (n= 5) experiences of giving and receiving emotional support via texting with family they identified as playing an important role in their life. Freshmen described giving and receiving emotional support with their mothers, texting them frequently, and feeling close to them. One student described getting emotional support from their father via texting. Though many freshmen reported receiving emotional support from other family members, texting was most frequent with mothers. Understanding how college students use texting to give and receive emotional support with family can inform strategies to support students during college. Mapping where and how students are receiving emotional support provides an understanding of how to support first generation college students and other underrepresented groups in higher education, for whom emotional support is critical during the transition into college.

Author(s): LeBouef, S., Dworkin, J., Hessel, H., Holmgren, H., Keyzers, A.

Existing data suggests a steady increase in texting since 2010 when the average 18-24 year old was sending 1,630 texts each month. However, there is little research exploring how college students use texting to stay connected with family. To address this gap, we applied a network approach, a core tenet of family systems theory, to explore how college students use texting to connect with family members, explore the content of text messages, and consider how texting serves to support or cause difficulties within family relationships. Nineteen college students (7 students of color) were interviewed (13 female, 1 transgender, 1 nonbinary). Content analyses revealed that texting provides an avenue for students to maintain family relationships even when there is geographical distance between them. Results provide: a model for understanding family relationships using a network approach and understanding how information is transmitted across the family network during college. Texting is critical to consider because of its prevalence in daily life across demographics, ease of use, low cost, and ability to instantly connect multiple people across large distances.

Evaluation of a 5-item Mental Health Screener from the Perspective of Providers and Refugees

Author(s): Patricia Shannon, Ph.D., Maria Vukovich, Ph.D., Raiza Beltram, M.P.H., Connor Molloy

We evaluated the effectiveness of evidence based, pilot processes for mental health screening and referral through the Minnesota public health system. We used a mixed methods, community based participatory research design to collect and analyze screening data and measures of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PDS) and Major Depression (HSCL). Measures collected at screening, three and six months post-screening, were analyzed quantitatively. Focused ethnographic interviews with providers and refugee patients were analyzed qualitatively using Spradley’s Developmental Research Sequence to explore participants’ experiences of the screening and referral process. Of 70 refugees recruited at screening clinics, 42 agreed to participate. Ten health providers participated. Of 8 positive screens, 4 met the cut off for Depression (> 1.75); 3 met the cut off for PTSD (> 1.75). At second interview, 2 of 5 positive screens for distress met the cut off for Depression (> 1.75), 1 met the cut off for PTSD (> 1.75). Qualitative refugee domains include screening experiences, psychoeducation, recommendations, and help needed. Provider domains are training, timing, clinic process, confidence, usefulness, following up, psychoeducation, and recommendations. The 5-item screener accurately identifies refugees needing further assessment for mental health distress. Providers and refugees both recommended more time for mental health screening.

Financial abuse of adults with disabilities: A scoping review

Author(s): Elizabeth Lightfoot, Heejung Yun

This poster presents a scoping study of financial abuse against people with disabilities for the purpose of providing an overview of the current state of the research. In this study, financial abuse is defined as theft, fraud, scams or exploitation, and people with disabilities include people with lifelong physical, intellectual, developmental or sensory disabilities. This study used the Arskey & O’Malley (2005) scoping methodology, searching seven databases for relevant sources (Criminal Justice Database, Medline(Ovid), PsycINFO(Ovid), CINAHL, Social care online, Social Care Online, Sociological Abstracts, Embase(Ovid), ERIC(ProQuest). While the study initially yielded 558 articles, only a handful included financial abuse of people with lifelong disabilities, with the majority focused on people with aging related disabilities, such as dementia. While there were numerous articles highlighting the risks of financial abuse that people with lifelong disabilities might face, there were only a few articles limited research into this prevalence, mechanisms or interventions to prevent this type of abuse. The few that were found were centered on service providers or consumer-directed care. The findings from this study will help direct future research into this important, but little studied issue.

Author(s): Amy R. Krentzman, MSW, PhD

Positive Peer Journaling (PPJ) is a daily exercise that combines positive psychology with behavioral activation to increase satisfaction with life in recovery from addiction and thereby reduce relapse. The purpose of this study was to use qualitative data to produce a theoretical model describing how PPJ might reinforce recovery. Participants were 15 women receiving residential treatment for addiction (M= 37 years, SD=10; 73% with household income < $15,000; 70% with civil or criminal court cases; 90% with trauma history; mean length of sobriety 48 days, SD=32). We conducted semi-structured interviews focusing on participants’ experience using PPJ for 5 weeks. Interview transcripts were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analytic techniques and grounded theory methodology to capture themes in the data, study the ways in which the themes were related, and build a theory to describe how the journal might work to support recovery. Recognizing that there was more positive in a day than negative and remembering to get things done produced increases in positive emotion and satisfaction with life. This helped participants realize what would be lost with relapse. Our findings dovetail with existing theories of subjective wellbeing and the maintenance of behavior change.

Implementation of integrated behavioral healthcare across the state of Minnesota: A latent class analysis

Author(s): Buchanan, G. J. R.

There is not enough access to care for mental health issues in the current healthcare system. Integrating mental/behavioral health services into primary care clinics has been demonstrated to improve access for patients needing brief care and linking patients to longer-term care as needed. Integrated behavioral health (IBH) has been demonstrated to improve outcomes for patients with various mental health issues such as depression and anxiety. Yet, implementation of IBH has typically been considered as a global concept rather than considering various components of implementation. This study aims to examine implementation of IBH at a more granular level. Participants in this study reported at the clinic level (N = 102 clinics) on the level of implementation of 18 different components of IBH. Organizing the 18 components into nine principles and structures of IBH (Stephens et al., in press), I demonstrate that IBH implementation varies across clinics. The implication of this study is that when clinics are attempting to integrate IBH, to consider multiple components of IBH rather than assessing as a whole. In addition, the study demonstrates that government policy mandates to incorporate mental health screening appear to be successful even in clinics that otherwise do not have IBH.

Intersectional Identity and Psychological Wellbeing during Emerging Adulthood

Author(s): Lijun Li, Joyce Serido

Identity is crucial during the transition to adulthood. Previous researchers have looked at gender identity, social identity, and personal identity. More recent studies have examined the domains of identity; however, few studies have explored the intersectionality of different aspects of identity, and how the intersectional identity is associated with psychological well-being.

In the current study, guided by identity theory and intersectionality theory, we applied an intersectional approach to examine identity and psychological well-being during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Specifically, we used LCA to discern the number of unique classes that emerged from the combination of several sociodemographic factors; then we used the discerned classes as indicators of intersectional identity. We then examined how this intersectional identity was associated with psychological well-being across different timepoints.

Four waves of data have been collected, and the current study includes participants who provided information on sociodemographic factors and mental health status (N=1978). Results of LCA indicated a good model fit for a 3-class model based on gender, ethnicity, first college status, GPA, and SES. Results of ANOVA tests based on observed membership indicated significant group differences in depression, self-esteem, worry, and impulsivity. In addition, the group difference differs across time.

Maternal Macronutrients Across Pregnancy: Impacts on Fetal Growth Trajectories

Author(s): Samantha Gardow, Mariann Howland, Colleen Doyle, Bonny Donzella & Megan R. Gunnar

Emerging evidence suggests that experiences and exposures during fetal development have the potential to alter development throughout the lifespan. Prenatal maternal nutrition is proposed as one mechanism of fetal programming. The current study had two aims: 1) to characterize patterns of fetal growth over gestation and 2) to examine associations between prenatal maternal macronutrients and fetal growth trajectories. Study participants were 51 maternal-fetal pairs from a prospective, longitudinal study of maternal health and emotions during pregnancy and their associations with fetal maturation. A mixed-effects model including a quadratic effect of gestational age best fit fetal growth trajectories. Three separate mixed-effects models with a linear effect of time were fit to examine early prenatal maternal intake of carbohydrates, proteins, and sugars as predictors of fetal growth trajectories. Results indicated that higher early prenatal maternal sugar intake was associated with a slower rate of fetal growth. This effect persisted after adjusting for maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, fetal sex and household income. Models examining the effects of maternal carbohydrates and proteins on fetal growth trajectories were non-significant. These findings provide novel information about trajectories of fetal growth and suggest that maternal nutrition, specifically sugar intake, may be predictive of fetal growth. Further research should examine maternal nutrition as a potential mechanism of fetal programming.

Relationship of Apolipoproteins with Subclinical Cardiovascular Risk in Youth

Author(s): Madeline A. Czeck, Elise F. Northrop, Nicholas G. Evanoff, Donald R. Dengel, Kyle D. Rudser, Aaron S. Kelly, Justin R. Ryder

The purpose of this study was to examine the association of apolipoproteins with measures of vascular structure and function in youth. A total of 338 children and adolescents (160 males/178 females) with a mean age 13.0+/-2.8 years were examined. Apolipoproteins (AI, AII, B100, CII, CIII, and E) were measured via human apolipoprotein magnetic bead panel. Applanation tonometry determined pulse wave velocity (PWV) and ultrasound imaging measured carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Dual X-ray absorptiometry measured total body fat percent (BF%). Linear regression models were adjusted for Tanner stage, sex, and race with further adjustments for BF%. Data are presented as mean [95% CI] with Holms-adjusted p-values. There was a significant positive association between PWV and apolipoproteins: AII (0.036m/sec/10ug/mL [0.017, 0.056], p=0.010), E (0.158m/sec/10ug/mL [0.08, 0.235], p=0.002), and CIII:CII ratio (0.033/ug/mL [0.014, 0.052], p=0.019). After adding BF% to the models, PWV remained positively associated with higher levels of apolipoproteins: AII (p=0.012), E (p=0.002), and CIII:CII ratio (p=0.02). There were no significant associations between any other apolipoprotein and cIMT. These findings suggest higher levels of apolipoprotein AII, E, and CIII:CII ratio are associated with increased arterial stiffness in pediatrics, both in the presence and absence of excess body fat.